Flashcards in Thoracic walls and diaphragm Deck (49):
What bones does the sternum consist of
Manubrium (at top)
How many thoracic vertebrae are there
How many pairs of ribs are there
What connects the ribs from the vertebrea to the sternum?
Which ribs are considered false?
Ribs 8, 9, 10
Which ribs are floating?
11 & 12
What does it mean by floating ribs?
They have no cartilage connecting them to sternum
Which are the true ribs?
What ribs are atypical?
1,2 and 10 - 12
What part of the rib articulates with the vertibral colum
How many demi facets are on a rib?
What does the smooth tubercles of a rib articulate with
Transverse process of a vertebrae
What does the rough tubercle articulate with
What is the costal groove for
Nerves and vessels
What does the transverse facet articulate with
Transverse part of vertebrae
What does a typical rib articulate with
Own vertebrae and the one ABOVE it
Between the head of a rib and the vertebral body
Ligaments of a costravertebral joint
Between smooth part of rib tubercle and verticle transverse process
What are the two thoracic apertures
Superior and inferior
What is the difference between the superior aperture and inferior aperture
Superior --> partially closed by SUPRAPLEURAL MEMBRANE but the central bit is open
Inferior --> larger and closed by diaphragm
Describe the diaphragm muscle
Inserts into a central tendon
Which side of the diaphragm is higher and why?
The right side is higher due to the liver
What is a crus?
tendinous structures that extend inferiorly from the diaphragm to attach to the vertebral column.
What crura does the diaphragm attach to the vertebrae by?
Right --> L1 - L3
Left --> L1 - L2
What is a haita
It is a hole that allows structures to pass through
What does the haita of the diaphragm allow to move through
Where does the aorta pass through the diaphragm
BEHIND the diaphragm
Where does the oseophagus pass through the diaphragm
Where does the IVC pass through the diaphragm
The central tendon part
What nerves provide motor innervations to the lower respiratory tract
Left and right phrenic nerves ONLY
From which spinal nerves do the phrenic nerves arise from
C3 - C5
What sensory nerves innervate the lower respiratory tract
Define intercostal space
The space above and below a rib
What are the three types of intercostal muscles
What direction are the fibres of external intercostal muscles
When are the external intercostal muscles most active
Where are the external intercostal muscles replaced by intercostal membrane?
Where are the internal intercostal muscles replaced by intercostal membrane?
Describe inner most intercostal muscles
Discontinuous and patchy
Which intercostal muscles do not play a huge role in respiration?
Where are the intercostal nerves found
B/w internal and inner most muscles
Where do the intercostal nerves arise from
Anterior rami of spinal nerves T1 - 11
What is the function of the intercostal muscles
What are the three different thoracic movements
What makes the thorax move vertically
What makes the thorax move anteroposteriorly
Upper rib movement
What makes the thorax move laterally/transversally
Middle rib movement