Thoracic walls and diaphragm Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Thoracic walls and diaphragm > Flashcards

Flashcards in Thoracic walls and diaphragm Deck (49):
1

What bones does the sternum consist of

Manubrium (at top)
Sternum body
Xyphroid process

2

How many thoracic vertebrae are there

12

3

How many pairs of ribs are there

12

4

What connects the ribs from the vertebrea to the sternum?

Costal cartilage

5

Which ribs are considered false?

Ribs 8, 9, 10

6

Which ribs are floating?

11 & 12

7

What does it mean by floating ribs?

They have no cartilage connecting them to sternum

8

Which are the true ribs?

1-7

9

What ribs are atypical?

1,2 and 10 - 12

10

What part of the rib articulates with the vertibral colum

Demi facets

11

How many demi facets are on a rib?

Two

12

What does the smooth tubercles of a rib articulate with

Transverse process of a vertebrae

13

What does the rough tubercle articulate with

Ligament attachment

14

What is the costal groove for

Nerves and vessels

15

What does the transverse facet articulate with

Transverse part of vertebrae

16

What does a typical rib articulate with

Own vertebrae and the one ABOVE it

17

Costravertebral joint

Between the head of a rib and the vertebral body

18

Ligaments of a costravertebral joint

Radiant ligament
Strong
Limits movement

19

Costrotransverse joint

Between smooth part of rib tubercle and verticle transverse process

20

What are the two thoracic apertures

Superior and inferior

21

What is the difference between the superior aperture and inferior aperture

Superior --> partially closed by SUPRAPLEURAL MEMBRANE but the central bit is open
Inferior --> larger and closed by diaphragm

22

Describe the diaphragm muscle

Circumferential origin
Inserts into a central tendon

23

Which side of the diaphragm is higher and why?

The right side is higher due to the liver

24

What is a crus?

tendinous structures that extend inferiorly from the diaphragm to attach to the vertebral column.

25

What crura does the diaphragm attach to the vertebrae by?

Right --> L1 - L3
Left --> L1 - L2

26

What is a haita

It is a hole that allows structures to pass through

27

What does the haita of the diaphragm allow to move through

Aorta
Oesophagus
And IVC

28

Where does the aorta pass through the diaphragm

BEHIND the diaphragm

29

Where does the oseophagus pass through the diaphragm

Muscular part
T10

30

Where does the IVC pass through the diaphragm

The central tendon part
Near T8

31

What nerves provide motor innervations to the lower respiratory tract

Left and right phrenic nerves ONLY

32

From which spinal nerves do the phrenic nerves arise from

C3 - C5

33

What sensory nerves innervate the lower respiratory tract

Phrenic
intercostal

34

Define intercostal space

The space above and below a rib

35

What are the three types of intercostal muscles

External
Internal
Inner most

36

What direction are the fibres of external intercostal muscles

Inferomedial

37

When are the external intercostal muscles most active

During respiration

38

Where are the external intercostal muscles replaced by intercostal membrane?

Anteriorly

39

Where are the internal intercostal muscles replaced by intercostal membrane?

Posteriorly

40

Describe inner most intercostal muscles

Discontinuous and patchy

41

Which intercostal muscles do not play a huge role in respiration?

Inner most

42

Where are the intercostal nerves found

B/w internal and inner most muscles

43

Where do the intercostal nerves arise from

Anterior rami of spinal nerves T1 - 11

44

What is the function of the intercostal muscles

Sensory innervation
Motor innervation

45

What are the three different thoracic movements

Vertical
Anteroposterior
Laterally/transverse

46

What makes the thorax move vertically

Diaphragm

47

What makes the thorax move anteroposteriorly

Upper rib movement

48

What makes the thorax move laterally/transversally

Middle rib movement

49

What muscles around the thorax contribute to thorax changes

Pec major
Pec mino and anterior abdominal walls