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Flashcards in Thorax Deck (34):

What is the mediastinum?

Interplueral space
anterior border - sternum
posterior border - vertebral column (does not contain lungs)
Has Superior meddistinum, Anterior and middle mediastinum and posterior mediastinum


What is a pleural cavity?

Space between the parietal and visceral pleura
closed sac with no communication with the other
film of fluid that facilitates movement of lungs


What is the Costodiaphragmatic recess?

Where pleural recesses form by reflection of costal and diaphragmatic pleurae
accumulate fluid when in erect position
pulls lungs and and expand during inspiration


What is the costomediastinal recess/

where costal and mediastinal pleura meet.


What is the pleura?

A serous membrane that consist of parietal and visceral pleura


What is the parietal pleura and its parts?

lines the inner surface of the thoracic wall and mediastinum
cervical (capula)- dome of pleura


What are the bounderies of the Capula (cervical parietal pleura)

projects into neck above the first rib
reinforced by Sibsons fascia separated from thoracic wall by endothoracic fascia
attached to first rib and tranverse process of seventh vertebrae


What is the innervation of each pleura?

Phrenic nerves - central portion of diaphragmatic pleura and mediastinal pleura
intercostal nerves - costal pleura and peripheral portions of diaphragmatic pleura


What are the arterial supply of the pleura?

Internal thoracic
superior phrenic
posterior intercostal
superior intercostal
bronchial arteries (visceral)


What is the pulmonary ligament?

two layered fold of mediastinal pleura
supports lungs in pleural sac by retaining lower parts of lungs in position


What are the muscles of the thorax?

external intercostals - elevates ribs in inspiration
internal intercostals - Depress ribs (costal part) elevate interchondral part
innermost intercostals - elevates ribs (strongest laterally)
transverse thoracic - depresses ribs
Subcostals -elevates ribs
levatores costarum


What nerves innervate the thoracic muscles?

intercostal nerves


What is housed by the thoracic cavity?

Pleural cavities,


What are the prominent openings of the thorax?

superior thoracic aperture
inferior thoracic aperture


What is the connection between the first costal cartilage and the manubrium called?

Synchondosis - immovable joint


Describe the connection between the second costal cartilage and the sternum.

connected at angle of the sternum
synovial joint with two compartments


describe the connection between ribs 3-7 to sternum

attached along sternum body
one synovial joint


describe the connection of of ribs 8-10

Interchondral joint - attached to costal cartilage of next higher ribs
single synovial joint


What are the ligaments that stabilize the ribs to verterbra?

Superior costotransverse
lateral costotransverse
radiate ligaments


What are the motions of the ribs and sternum?

Three primary directions


Describe the motion of the ribs and diaphragm

Ribs facilitate lateral and anteroposterior motion
Diaphragm facilitate vertical motion


What is the motion of each rib?

Described as bucket like and pump handle like
Rib 1- elevate and depress ribs by scalene MM.
Rib 2- 5 largely pump handle motion, increase the sagittal plane (work as pairs to raise sternum)
Rib 6-10 largely bucket handle motion, increase the transverse plane (do not work symetrically)
Rib 10 & 11 – pincer like


Where are the intercostal arteries?

two most superior artery from the subclavian artery
Nine most inferior branches directly from aorta


Where are the intercostal veins?

Superior most veins from subclavian veins
Remaining veins of azygos (right side) or hemiazygos (left side)


What are the intercostal nerves?

Thoracicintercostal nerve 1-6 (first small branch of brachial plexus ventral rami of T1)
Thoracoabdominal intercostal nerves 7-11
Subcostal nerve 12


What is the path of the internal intercostal arteries/

Descends from subclavian posterior to sternum anterior to transverse thoracic Muscles


What are the branches of the internal thoracic artery?

Pericardiacophrenic artery
Anterior intercostal Artery
Musclophrenic artery
Superior epigastric artery


What is the musclotendinous structure?

Separates abdomen and thorax
Consist of two domes with central tendon
Attached to xyphoid process, costal margin, ribs 11 & 12, ligaments of posterior abdominal wall, and lumbar vertebrae
During inspiration diaphragm is pulled radially and depressed
Expiration, roght dome reaches 5th rib, left dome reaches 5th intercostal space
Innervated by phrenic nerve
Cutaneous innervation: phrenic nerve and intercostal nerve


What are the three primary openings of the diaphragm?

Esophageal opening (esophagus and vagus nerve)
Aortic aperture (Aorta, thoracic duct, Azygos & hemiazygos)
Vena caval aperture (inferior vena cava openings)


What is the function of the diaphragm?

Seperates the thorax from the abdomen,
breathing in it flattens increasing the volume of the thorax which then expands lungs
associated with breathing in not out


Where are the vessels found in the thorax?

Between internal and innermost


Where is the azygos vein?
What part of the body does it serve?

it is found on the right side of the vertebral column.
it starts at T12 and it dumps into the SVC serving the right thorax and abdomen


Where is the hemiazygos vein?
What body part does it serve?

Left side of vertebral column
Transverses the vertebral column at T9 to connect with azygos
serves left side of thorax and abdomen


where is the accessory hemiazygos vein?
what body part does it serve?

located in the midthoracic region
transverses veterbra at T7 to dump into azygos vein
drains the left thoracic and left abdomen