Thorax-intercostal spaces and muscles, pleural cavities, and lungs Flashcards Preview

Anatomy Exam 2 > Thorax-intercostal spaces and muscles, pleural cavities, and lungs > Flashcards

Flashcards in Thorax-intercostal spaces and muscles, pleural cavities, and lungs Deck (75):
1

During inspiration, the volume of the thoracic cavity ___, the air pressure within the thoracic cavity ___, and air moves ___

increases, decreases, into the lungs

2

During expiration, the volume of the thoracic cavity ___, the air pressure within the thoracic cavity ___, and air moves ___

decreases, increases, out of the lungs

3

During inspiration, the ribs ____, the sternum moves ___, and the diaphragm moves ___ as it contracts

elevate; anteriorly; down

4

During expiration, the ribs ____, the sternum moves ___, and the diaphragm moves ___ as it relaxes

depress; posteriorly; up (due to pressure in the abdominal cavity)

5

During forced contraction of the diaphragm, the volume of the abdominal cavity ____, the pressure in the abdominal cavity ____, and the abdominal organs ____

decreases; increases; move contents out

6

The left superior posterior vein crosses ____ the aorta to drain into the ____ vein

over; azygos

7

Posterior intercostal veins on the right side of the body drain into the ____ which drains into the ____ and then into the ____

azygos vein; SVC; RA

8

The left posterior intercostal veins drain into the ____ on the upper portion of the thorax and the ____ in the lower portion of the thorax. These cross ___ the aorta to drain into the azygos vein

accessory hemiazygos v.; hemiazygos v.; under

9

The space from the thorax into the neck, created by the 1st ribs, manubrium, and 1st thoracic vertebrae (carry CCA, SA, IJ, SV, trachea esophagus, phrenic n., vagus n., and sympathetic trunk

Superior thoracic aperture

10

The space from the thorax into the abdomen, created by the costal margin, the bottoms of the 11 and 12 rib, and the 12 thoracic vertebrae (diaphragm attaches here, carries descending aorta, esophagus, parts of the vagus nerve, sympathetic trunk, thoracic splanchnic nerves, IVC, and thoracic duct)

Inferior thoracic aperture

11

The pressure in the thoracic cavity needs to be kept ___ to keep the lungs expanded

low

12

The thoracic cavity has 3 first divisions

left and right pleural cavities, and mediastinum

13

The mediastinum is divided first into the ____ between T4-T5/sternal angle

superior and inferior mediastinum

14

The inferior mediastinum is then divided into the

anterior, middle, and posterior mediastinum

15

The anterior mediastinum is between the ___ and ___

sternum and heart

16

The middle mediastinum is the area around the

hearat

17

The posterior mediastinum is between the ___ and ___

heart and vertebrae

18

Lines the internal surface of body cavity

parietal

19

Lines the external surface of organs

visceral

20

Between the two connected serous membranes (visceral and parietal) there is

serous fluid

21

the serous membranes around the lungs are

pleura

22

the serous membranes around the heart are

pericardium

23

the lungs developed off of the ___ in the embryo

gut tube

24

Keeps surface tension high enough to keep the lungs from collapsing

pleural fluid

25

The parietal pleura has what 4 areas

costal, diaphragmatic, mediastinal, cervical

26

The area where visceral pleura and mediastinal parietal pleura is the ___, where the ______ travel

root; pulmonary artery, pulmonary veins, and primary bronchi

27

The visceral pericardium is continuous with the

parietal pericardium

28

The area between the visceral pericardium and parietal pericardium is the

pericardial cavity

29

The fibrous pericardium is continuous with the

connective tissue on the outside of any of the great vessels

30

The fibrous pericardium is also attached to the ___ and moves ____

diaphragm and moves up and down with it

31

Between the fibrous pericardium and the mediastinal parietal pleura, the ____ can be found

phrenic nerve

32

The space between the sternum and lungs is called

costomediastinal recess

33

The space between the ribs and diaphragm is called

costodiaphragmatic recess

34

The upper respiratory tract includes the :

external nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx

35

The lower respiratory tract includes the:

larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs

36

The ___ is the ridge at the bifurcation of the trachea, is very sensitive to mechanical stimulation, and causes a cough reflex

carina

37

The muscle on the posterior surface of the trachea contracts to ___

cough

38

The lateral and anterior portions of the trachea are covered by

c-shaped cartilagenous rings

39

The right lung has what 5 things:

superior lobe, horizontal fissure, middle lobe, oblique fissure, inferior lobe

40

The left lung has what 5 things:

superior lobe, ligula, cardiac notch, oblique fissure, inferior lobe

41

The secondary bronchi go to the

individual lobes of the lungs

42

The conducting system does what 4 things to air

exchanges heat, moves air, cleans air, and moisturizes air

43

What 2 reasons does air need to be moisturized

1-keep mucous membranes moist 2-need water for gas exchange

44

Gas exchange occurs in the ____ of the respiratory system

respiratory zone

45

The ____ connect alveoli and allow air to move between alveoli

alveolar pores

46

The pulmonary artery carries ___ blood

deoxygenated

47

The pulmonary veins carry ___ blood

oxygenated

48

These cells make up the walls of the alveoli, and gas exchanges occurs across them

type I alveolar cells

49

These cells secrete surfactant

type II alveolar cells

50

Surfactant is important to

decrease surface tension of water and keep alveoli open

51

The brachial arteries are branches off of the

descending thoracic aorta

52

The brachial arteries supply the

bronchial tree, lung tissue, and visceral pleura

53

This is a folding of pleura from the mediastinal parietal pleura and visceral pleura

pulmonary ligament

54

The flow of oxygen across the respiratory membrane goes

epithelium of Type I alveolar cells--> basement membrane of alveolar epithelium --> basement membrane of capillary endothelium --> capillary endothelium --> blood

55

The bronchial veins drain

proximal part of bronchial tree and proximal lung tissue

56

The pulmonary veins drain

distal part of bronchial tree, distal lung tissue, visceral pleura

57

The bronchial and pulmonary veins drain into the

azygos vein on the right, accessory hemiazygos, hemiazygos, or left posterior superior intercostal vein on the left

58

The pulmonary plexuses supply the

para, sym, and visceral sensory nerves to the bronchial tree and vasculature of the lungs

59

The pulmonary plexus supplies the parasympathetic of

brainstem and vagus nerve

60

The pulmonary plexus supplies the sympathetic of

visceral branches off of the upper thoracic spinal cord and lungs

61

Anywhere parasympathetic or sympathetic nerves go, ____ follows

visceral sensory

62

The vagus nerve provides parasympathetic innervation to the

thorax and most of the abdomen

63

These travel inferiorly, deep to the mediastinal pleura

vagus and phrenic nerves

64

This nerve runs between the fibrous pericardium and the mediastinal parietal pleura

phrenic nerve

65

This nerve follows the esophagus down to the abdomen

vagus nerve

66

This artery supplies the pericardium and diaphragm

pericardiacophrenic artery

67

This vein drains the pericardium and diaphragm

pericardiacophrenic vein

68

The pericardiacophrenic artery is a branch off the

internal thoracic artery

69

The pericardiacophrenic vein drains into the

internal thoracic vein or brachiocephalic vein

70

This a. and v. travels inferiorly with the phrenic nerve

pericardiacophrenic a and v

71

Just lateral to the vertebral bodies on the posterior wall of thorax runs the

thoracic sympathetic trunk

72

The greater splanchnic nerve comes off of

T5-T9

73

The lesser splanchnic nerve comes off of

T10-T11

74

The least splanchnic nerve comes off of

T12

75

The lumbar splanchnic nerve comes off of

L1-L3