Thorax Self Study Flashcards Preview

CV > Thorax Self Study > Flashcards

Flashcards in Thorax Self Study Deck (37):
1

True ribs

Ribs 1-7
– A true rib is defined by its “direct” attachment to the sternum via its own costal cartilage

2

False ribs

Ribs 8, 9, and 10
– A false rib is defined by the “indirect” attachment to the sternum via a connection of its costal cartilage to the costal cartilage of the rib above

3

Floating ribs:

Ribs 11 and 12
– A floating rib has rudimentary cartilage that makes no connection to the sternum but rather ends in muscle of the posterior abdominal wall

4

Typical Ribs

Ribs 3-9
– A typical rib is defined by having two facets on its head for articulation with its corresponding numeric vertebrae as well as the vertebrae above.

In addition, it has a neck, a tubercle articulation with the transverse process of the corresponding vertebrae, and a thin flat curved body which bends at the costal angle and has a costal groove.

5

Atypical Ribs

Ribs 1,2 and 10-12
– 1st has an atypical shape and only
a single fact on its head
– 2nd has a tuberosity on its body
– 10-12 have only a single facet on their head
– 11-12 are short, have no neck and no tubercle

6

Superior Mediastinum Structures

Thymus
Trachea
Esophagus
Phrenic Nerves
Vagus nerves
Azygos vein
Brachiocephalic veins
Superior vena cava
Thoracic duct
Aortic arch
Brachiocephalic artery
Left common carotid artery
Left subclavian artery

7

Anterior Mediastinum

Thymus/Fat
Pericardial Ligaments

8

Posterior Mediastinum

Descending Aorta
Vagus nerves
Splanchnic nerves
Thoracic duct
Esophagus Azygos vein

9

Middle Mediastinum

Pericardium and Heart Ascending Aorta
Pulmonary Arteries Pulmonary Veins
Superior vena cava
Inferior vena cava
Phrenic nerves

10

Structures shared by superior and posterior mediastinum:

Vagus nerves
Thoracic Duct
Esophagus
Azygos vein

11

Structure shared by superior and anterior mediastinum:

Thymus

12

Structures shared by superior and middle mediastinum:

Phrenic Nerves
Superior Vena Cava

13

What are components of a spinal nerve?

GSA, GSE, GVA, GVE

14

What are components of a ventral ramus?

GSA, GSE, GVA, GVE

15

What are components of a dorsal ramus?

GSA, GSE, GVA, GVE

16

What are components of white rami communicans?

Preganglionic GVE fibers (Sympathetic)

17

What are components of gray rami communicans?

Postganglionic GVE fibers (Sympathetic)

18

What are components of sphlanchnic nerves?

Preganglionic GVE fibers(Sympathetic)

19

What are components of vagus nerves?

Preganglionic GVE fibers (Parasympathetic)

20

Where else are GVA fibers?

Running in the vagus nerve to the brainstem and in the sympathetic chain back to the spinal cord.

21

What are components of cutaneous nerves?

GSA, GVA, GVE

22

What contributes to Cardiac, Pulmonary, Esophageal Plexuses?

Sympathetic and Parasympathetic (vagus nerve)

23

Dorsal Root Ganglia contain what kind of cell the bodies and processes of

GSA and GVA fibers

24

What is the paravertebral ganglia?

Site of synapse between pre and postganglionic sympathetic
GVE neurons

25

What is the paravertebral ganglia associated with and what is the site of synapse?

splanchnic nerves and are the site of synapse between pre and postganglionic sympathetic GVE neurons

26

Terminal Ganglia site of synapse is

between pre and postganglionic parasympathetic GVE neurons, and are found in or near the walls of organs

27

The sternal angle serves as a land mark for what structures?

The sternal angle marks the approximate level of
the 2nd pair of costal cartilages, which attach to
the second ribs, and the level of the intervertebral
disc between T4 and T5. The angle also marks a
number of other features:
-Boundary between the superior and inferior
portion of the mediastinum
-Passage of the thoracic duct from right to left
behind esophagus
-Tracheal Bifurcation
-End of the azygos system into SVC
-Ligamentum
arteriosum
-Loop of left recurrent laryngeal
nerve around aortic arch
-Aortic arch starts and ends

28

What is the blood supply of the pericardium layers?

pericardiacophrenic vessels
branches of the internal thoracic vessels and the thoracic aorta

29

What is the innervation of the pericardium layers?

GVE and GVA fibers from the vagus nerves and the sympathetic chain.

30

What is the innervation of the fibrous and parietal layer of serous pericardium?

GSA fibers through the phrenic nerves. (Again, these
structures receive somatic sensation while the visceral pericardium does not) .

31

Arteries originating from the ascending aorta

Right and Left Coronary arteries

32

Branches of the Right Coronary Artery

•SA nodal branch
•Marginal Artery
•Posterior Interventricular Artery (Posterior descending)

33

Branches of the Rt Coronary artery supply?

-right atrium,
-right ventricle (the majority of it),
-part of the left ventricle,
-SA node and the AV node,
-part of the interventricular septum (posteriorly)

34

Branches of the Lt Coronary Artery

•Left Anterior Descending (Anterior Interventricular Artery)
•Circumflex

35

Branches of the Lt Coronary artery supply?

-left atrium,
-left ventricle (the
majority of it),
-part of the right ventricle,
-the interventricular septum

36

Describe the pericardium layers?

fibrous outer layer and two serous layers: parietal and visceral

37

Where are the intercostal vein artery and nerve found?

At the inferior border of the superior rib.