Thyroid Neoplasia and Diseases of Parathyroid Flashcards Preview

Endocrinology > Thyroid Neoplasia and Diseases of Parathyroid > Flashcards

Flashcards in Thyroid Neoplasia and Diseases of Parathyroid Deck (26):
1

Solitary thyroid nodules are more likely to be neoplastic than multiple nodules are

truth

2

What age, sex, health history, is associated with increased thyroid malignancy risk?

younger pts, males, history of radiation in the head/neck.

3

What characteristics of radionucleotide imaging predispose to a neoplasm

"cold" nodules 10% malignancy
"hot" nodules almost always benign

4

Who do you call if you do a fine needle aspiration and the result is a follicular lesion?

Surgeon. It could be a follicular adenoma (benign) or a follicular carcinoma (malignant), but you can't tell the difference between the two so you've got to remove it either way. KNOW

5

Who do you call if it comes back a papillary lesion?

surgeon...papillary lesions in the thyroid are always malignant

6

What are the three types of benign thyroid nodules

colloid nodules (80% of the time)
cysts
follicular adenoma

7

What are the different types of malignant thyroid nodules?

Papillary carcinoma- most common malignant
Follicular carcinoma
medullary carcinoma
anaplastic carcinoma
rare malignancy

8

How do you tell the difference between a follicular adenoma and carcinoma

Follicular carcinoma will feature capsular and/or vascular invasion

9

Thyroid carcinomas account for about what percentage of human malignancies?

about 1%

10

Thyroid carcinomas in autopsy specimens

about 10%

11

Medullary and anaplastic tumors commonly arise at what age range?

After 40 years

12

Papillary and follicular carcinomas frequently arise at what age range?

Before 40 years

13

What is a psammoma body?

associated with papillary carcinoma, papillary calcium in thyroid tends to produce these calcified structures

Seen in many different neoplasms but mainly associated with papillary cancers (remember that papillary carcinomas can arise in organs besides the thyroid)

14

Carcinomas demonstrate vascular invasion

Adenomas do not

15

Medullary carcinoma is by definition what?

Tumor of the parafollicular C cells which produce calcitonin...get too much calcitonin release so pts present with hypocalcemia

16

What percentage of medullary carcinomas are sporadic?

80%

17

Of the non-sporadic medullary carcinoma, what are some major mutations?

MEN-IIA, MEN-IIB, non-MEN

18

Major clinical finding in medullary carcinoma?

hypocalcemia,,,,severe (may kill them)

19

Amyloid deposits associated with...

medullary carcinoma

20

Anaplastic carcinoma

RARE but TERRIBLE, invade locally and metastasize widely, usually affect older folks (mean age = 65)
- most pts have a history of some sort of thyroid disease

21

Lymphoma in the thyroid is almost always from what cell lineage?

B cell

22

What is the only known risk factor for thyroid lymphoma?

Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

23

How many parathyroid glands are there?

4

24

What do they develop from?

third and fourth brachial pouches

25

Parathyroid adenoma

most are benign.
- Inc in PTH and hypercalcemia
- Most are asymptomatic
- Moans, bones, stones

26

Parathyroid hyperplasia

absolute increase in the mass of the parenchymal cells of the parathyroid gland. All or most of the glands are enlarged as opposed to one solitary gland in adenoma.