Flashcards in TIA Deck (20)
what is the main risk factor of strokes?
definition fo TIA
Neurological Deficit lasting less than 24 hours attributable to Cerebral or retinal ischaemia
what are the main causes of TIA
carotid artery disease/large artery disease.
Cerebral small vessel disease
why is the diagnosis of TIA important of relating it to a stroke.
20% of strokes will be preceded by a TIA.
Can any treatment be provided to prevent a TIA becoming a stroke.
what is the main clinical presentation of a TIA
loss of function
lasts for sometime and then it gets better.
what common conditions can a stroke mimic
seizure,syncope(fainting), hypoglycaemia, migraines, acute confusional states.
In an anteriror circulation stroke which blood vessels are commonly affected
what are the clinical feature of a anterior stroke circulation.
Amarausis fugax- clot in vessels going to the eyes- lose vision.
Dysphasia- Broca’s expressive, Wernicke’s- receptive.
Apraxia- cannot sequence motor function together.
Inattention- right side of brain is involved in visual spatial awareness and therefore resulting in attention to the left side of the body.
what blood vessels are involve in posterior circulation of the brain
what are the common signs of posterior circulation of the brain.
Ataxia- loss of balance
Diplopia- double vision
Bilateral Symptoms- affects both sides of the body
what measures are used to measure the risk of stoke post TIA
age- over 60
clinical features- unilateral weakness, speech disturbance
duration of symptoms- 60 mins, 10-50 mins, less than 10 minx
are visual field defect posterior or anterior circulation defect
Does a series of lots of TIA's increase the risk of stroke
how is a TIA investigated
History- previous TIA, cardio history
Exam- MRI, ECG, CT (to see whether posterior or anterior circulation occlusion)
Blood tests- hypoglycaemia presents similarly to TIA
what are the secondary preventions of TIA to reduce stroke.
• Aspirin- REDUCES THE RISK OF STROKE BY 20%
• ASP/ Dip v Asp
• BP lowering drugs
• Diabetic control
what drugs does the polypill which is used to prevent stroke contain
• Folic Acid
what is Carotid Endarterectomy
• Cut open the vessel and remove the plaque- surgical removal of part of the inner lining of an artery, together with any obstructive deposits
when should Carotid Endarterectomy be carried out after a stroke
immediately after- most effective
what is the treatment intervention for a carotid artery occlusion