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Flashcards in TIA Deck (20):
1

what is the main risk factor of strokes?

age

2

definition fo TIA

Neurological Deficit lasting less than 24 hours attributable to Cerebral or retinal ischaemia

3

what are the main causes of TIA

carotid artery disease/large artery disease.
Cerebral small vessel disease
Cardiac embolism.

4

why is the diagnosis of TIA important of relating it to a stroke.

20% of strokes will be preceded by a TIA.
Can any treatment be provided to prevent a TIA becoming a stroke.

5

what is the main clinical presentation of a TIA

loss of function
lasts for sometime and then it gets better.

6

what common conditions can a stroke mimic

seizure,syncope(fainting), hypoglycaemia, migraines, acute confusional states.

7

In an anteriror circulation stroke which blood vessels are commonly affected

Internal carotids

8

what are the clinical feature of a anterior stroke circulation.

Amarausis fugax- clot in vessels going to the eyes- lose vision.

Dysphasia- Broca’s expressive, Wernicke’s- receptive.

Apraxia- cannot sequence motor function together.

Inattention- right side of brain is involved in visual spatial awareness and therefore resulting in attention to the left side of the body.

9

what blood vessels are involve in posterior circulation of the brain

Vertebral arteries

10

what are the common signs of posterior circulation of the brain.

Ataxia- loss of balance
Diplopia- double vision
Vertigo
Bilateral Symptoms- affects both sides of the body

11

what measures are used to measure the risk of stoke post TIA
(ABCD^2)

age- over 60
BP-140/90
clinical features- unilateral weakness, speech disturbance
duration of symptoms- 60 mins, 10-50 mins, less than 10 minx
diabetes- yes/no

12

are visual field defect posterior or anterior circulation defect

posterior

13

Does a series of lots of TIA's increase the risk of stroke

Yes

14

how is a TIA investigated

History- previous TIA, cardio history
Exam- MRI, ECG, CT (to see whether posterior or anterior circulation occlusion)
Blood tests- hypoglycaemia presents similarly to TIA

15

what are the secondary preventions of TIA to reduce stroke.

• Diet
• Exercise
• Aspirin- REDUCES THE RISK OF STROKE BY 20%
• ASP/ Dip v Asp
• Statin
• BP lowering drugs
• Warfarin
• Smoking
• Diabetic control

16

what drugs does the polypill which is used to prevent stroke contain

• Antihypertensives
• Folic Acid
• Statin
• Aspirin

17

what is Carotid Endarterectomy

• Cut open the vessel and remove the plaque- surgical removal of part of the inner lining of an artery, together with any obstructive deposits

18

when should Carotid Endarterectomy be carried out after a stroke

immediately after- most effective

19

what is the treatment intervention for a carotid artery occlusion

nothing
not possible

20

the early the treatment post TIA the reduced the risk of strokes? true or false

True