tibia, fibula, and ankle joints Flashcards Preview

Z MD1 Hip and leg anatomy > tibia, fibula, and ankle joints > Flashcards

Flashcards in tibia, fibula, and ankle joints Deck (50):
0

what is the significance of the tibial tuberosity

where the patella tendon attaches to the tibia

2

why is the anterior border of the tibia susceptible to fracture

so close to the skin

3

is the soleus line anterior or posterior

posterior

4

what is the soleal line

where the soleus muscle attaches

5

action of soleal muscle on the tibia

helps maintain posture due to the centre of gravity lying anterior to the tibia

6

why can fractures of the distal 1/3 of the tibia take longer to heal compared to the proximal 2/3

because the blood supply here isnt as good as the bone is thinner hear

7

what makes up the lateral and medial malleolus at the ankle and which is bigger

medial malleolus - distal tibia lateral malleolus - distal fibula (extends further distally)

8

major roles of the tibia and fibula

tibia - weight bearing fibula - non weight bearing, for muscle attachment

9

is the tibial tuberosity anterior or posterior

anterior

10

why is it easy to get ring hypophyses fractures of the tibia and fibula

because they are connected via the interosseous membrane

11

what is the function of the interosseous membrane between the tibia and fibula

passage of vessels

12

what kind of joints are the superior and inferior tibiofibular joints

superior = plane synovial joint inferior = fibrous joint (syndesmosis)

13

what structures help stabilise the superior tibiofibular joint

- anterior and posterior tibiofibular ligaments - fibular collateral ligament (attaches to head of the fibula) - head of one of the hamstring muscles attaches to fibula

14

what is the importance of the stability of the inferior tibiofibular joinw

it allows us to be bipedal - it prevents tibia and fibula from separating during weight bearing

15

what structures help stabilise the inferior tibiofibular joint

anterior and posterior interosseous tibiofibular ligaments

16

which joint is least likely to dislocate? the superior or inferior tibiofibular joint

superior (inferior very unlikely)

17

what is the malleolar mortise

the distal end of the fibula forms a socket for the talus bone of the foot

18

what are the names of the tarsal bones and how are they arranged

3 rows: 1st row: calcaneus and talus 2nd row: cuboid and navicular 3rd row: medial, intermediate and lateral cuneiforms

19

which tarsal bone is the "heel"

calcaneous

20

which tarsal bone articulates at the ankle joint

the talus bone (only bone to articulate here)

21

where does the archilles tendon attach

to the posterior border of the calcaneus tarsal bone

22

which muscle is the archilles tendon part of

soleus

23

which bones articulate anteriorly with the talus and the calcaneous bones

talus = navicular calcaneous = cuboid

24

what is a March fracture

fracture of the 2nd metatarsal

25

why is the 2nd metatarsal most likely to fracture

because it is the longest and thinnest metatarsal and its articulation with the tarsal is very wedged in between the first and third

26

functions of sesamoid bones in the foot

- cushioning effect - can create a space for nerves and vessels to run through

27

what are accessory bones in the foot

secondary centres of ossification that dont fuse with the parent bone

28

what are the 3 joints that the talus bone is a part of

ankle joint above (talocrural joint) subtalar joint below (talcalcaneal joint) midtarsal joint in front (talocalcaeneonavicular and calcaneocuboid)

29

what "deepens" the ankle joint posteriorly

the inferior transverse ligament

30

movement at the ankle joint

flexion (plantar flexion) and extension (dorsiflexion) only - hinge joint (have associated slight inversion and eversion)

31

association of inversion and eversion with dorsiflexion and plantar flexion of the ankle joint

plantar flexion associated with some inversion dorsi flexion associated with some eversion

32

what causes the slight inversion and eversion of the foot with dorsi and plantar flexion

due to the lateral malleolus being longer distally than the medial malleolus

33

is dorsi or plantar flexion more stable and why

plantar flexion is more stable because anterior articulation of the talus bone is wider anteriorly compared to posteriorly

34

what is the main medial ligament of the ankle joint

deltoid ligament - very strong

35

what are the main lateral ligaments of the ankle joint

3 lateral collateral ligaments

36

is eversion or inversion sprains of the ankle more common

inversion - because the deltid ligament is much more stable than the lateral collateral ligaments - therefore lateral collateral ligaments injured more often

37

inversion of the ankle joint is associated with what fracture

fracture of the malleolus of the fibula (because the body of the talus is pushing on the lateral malleolus outwards)

38

what is a Pots fracture

fracture of the fibula due to forced eversion of the ankle joint

39

which joint is associated with inversion and eversion of the ankle

the subtalar joint (between talus and calcaneous)

40

function of the spring ligament in the foot

maintains the position of the head of the talus

41

what is the proper name for the spring ligament of the foot

the plantar calcaneo-navicular ligament

42

what is the sinus tarsi

slight gap between the subtalar and TCN joints - where the interosseous talocalcaneal ligament runs and also where the vascular sling runs

43

function of the interosseous talocalcaneal ligament

binds calcaneus and talus firmly together

44

what is pronation and supination of the foot joints

pronation = eversion and lateral rotation supination = inversion and medial rotation

45

action of the calcaneocuboid joint

helps in pronation and supination

46

what are the Lisfranc joints

the tarsometatarsal joints

47

what are the 3 arches of the arches of the foot

2 longitudinal arches (medial and lateral) 1 transverse arch

48

is the medial or lateral longitudinal arch of the foot higher

medial as it is supported by ligaments and muscles

49

what kind of support is needed for the arches of the foot in dynamic and static activity

dynamic activity = muscular support static activity = ligamentous upport

50

what is the Windlass effect of the plantar aponeurosis

dorsiflexion of the toes during propulsive phase of gait causes tightening of the plantar aponeurosis --> causes elevation of the longitudinal arch - leading to a forced supination of the foot in preparation for the push off during gait