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Flashcards in Tissue Organization Deck (56):
1

Epithelial Tissue

Tissue that lines, covers, and protects

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Epithelial Tissue Characteristics

Cellularity---
Polarity ---
Basement membrane ----
Avascularity
Extensive innervation
High Regenerative capacity

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Epithelial Tissue: Cellularity

High cell number, and tightly packed together

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Epithelial Tissue: Polarity

Have sides. Apical surface, and basal surface

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Epithelial Tissue: Basement membrane

non-living substance. Produced by epithelial cells acne connect tissue below it. Both of these tissues share this tissue

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Epithelial Tissue: Avascularity

No blood supply of their own. Receive nutrients and gases from underlying CT

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Epithelial Tissue: Extensive innervation

High proportion of sensory receptors: to detect changes in a given variable.

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Epithelial Tissue: High regenerative Capacity

Continually under go Mitosis

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Epithelial Tissue can be classified by

Cell shape or amount of layers

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Squamous cell shape

Fried egg shape

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Cuboidal Cell

About as tall as wide with centrally located, spherical nucleus

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Columnar cell

Taller than wide. Ovoid, basally located nucleus

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Functions of Epithelial Tissue

Physical protection (Protect internal and external structures by providing barrier)-----
Selective Permeability (Controls what enters and exits the body)-----
Secretion (Produce and release chemicals)-----
Sensation (Rich nerve fibers sense changes in variables and communicate this information to the control center)


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Simple Squamous

F: Thinnest possible barrier, minimal stress.
allows rapid diffusion and filtration
Location: Avioli in lungs, lining blood and lymph vessels (endothelium), making up serous membrane (mesothelium)

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Simple Cuboidal

F: Absorption and secretion
Location: Kidney tubules, filtering blood (Reabsorption of nutrients, ions, and water from blood) and producing urine. Thyroid Gland, secreting thyroid hormones. covers the surface of the ovary

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Simple Columnar Nonciliated

-Contain Goblet Cells (unicellular glands that secrete mucin)
-For: Absorption and secretion
- Location: Digestive track from stomach to anus, most have microvilli (Creating brush border)

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Simple columnar ciliated

- Contain goblet cells
-For: moving stuff along tissue surface. covered in mucus
- Location: Larger Broncials, lining uterine tubes (helps move oocyte from ovary to uterus)

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Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

Appears like multiple layers. contains goblet cells in ciliated
For: Protection
Location: -ciliated form lines larger airways of respiratory tract, including nasal cavity, part of pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi
-nonciliated in male urethra

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nonkeratinized stratified squamous

Kept moist with secretions like saliva or mucus.
For: abrasion resistance. Protection of underlying tissue.
Location: line mouth, pharynx, mucus membrane, vagina, and anus

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Keratinized stratified squamous

Water proof, abrasion resistant. Outside cells are dead and lack nuclei.
For Protection of underlying tissue.
Location: epidermis of skin

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Stratified cuboidal

For: Secreting and protecting.
Location: Ducts of exocrine glands and some regions of the male urethra.

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Stratified columnar

For: Secreting and protecting
Location: large ducts of salivary glands and membranous parts of male urethra

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Transitional epithelium

Change shape depending on how full the urinary bladder is.
Empty bladder: cuboital
Distended bladder: squamous.

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Glands purpose and types

Produce an release a chemical product.
Endocrine glads" produce hormones and release it into the blood (ductless glands)
Exocrine glands: produce secretion and release it onto an epithelial surface through a duct.

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Parts of exocrine glands

Acini: Cells that produce secretion and release them into duct.
Duct: conducts product to epithelial surface.

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Tubular (simple, branched, compound)

secretory acinus region is same diameter as duct

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Acinal (simple, branched, compound)

Secretory region is larger in diameter

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Merocrine glands

Produce a product, package it into a vesicle and release it by exocytosis. (Sweat glands)

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Apocrine glands

produce a product at apical surface that buds off cells into duct (mammory glands, pubic or axillary sweat glands)

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Holocrine glands

accumulates product and disintegrates. secretion is mix of cell fragments and product produced by the cell. (sebaceous glands)

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CT Resident Cells

Stationary cells that are permanently housed within the CT. Support, maintain, and repair
Fibroblasts.
adipocytes.
Mesenchymal cells.
fixed macrophages.
Chondrocytes.
Osteocytes.
Blood Cells.

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Fibroblasts

Most abundant cells

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Adipocytes

fat cells

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mesenchymal cells

stem cells that repair damaged CT

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Fixed macrophages

Eat things

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Wandering cells

immune

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Collagen fibers

Cable like fiber, strong flexible, stretch resistance

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Reticular

Thinner than collagen, form mesh framework

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Elastic

Contains Elastin giving elasticity

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Ground substance

Made by resistance cells, varies in composition

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Areolar CT

cells: fibroblasts
F: protects organs, binds epithelial to deeper tissue
L: Papillary layer of dermis, subcutaneous layer

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Adipose CT

Cell: adipocytes
F: insulates, cushions, protects, energy store
L: Subcutanious layer, covers organ

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Reticular CT

Cell: fibroblasts, leukocytes
F: stroma of immune organs
L: spleen, bone marrow

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Dense Regular CT

Cell: fibroblasts, collagen fiber
F: Resist stress in one direction
L: ligaments and tendons

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Dense irregular CT

Cell: Fibroblasts, Collagen fibers
F: withstand stretch in many directions
L: Dermis, periosteum covering bone, perichondrium covering cartilage, organ capsules

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Elastic CT

Cell: fibroblasts making elastic fibers
F: stretch and recoil
L: walls of arteries, vocal chords, suspensory ligament of penis

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Hyaline Cartilage

Cell: chondrocytes in lacunae
F: support
L: tip of nose, end of long bone, fetal skeleton

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Fibrocartilage

Cell:chondrocytes in lacunae, parallel collagen fibers
F: resist conpression, shock absorber
L: Invertebral discs, Pubic symphysis, menisci of knee

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Elastic cartilage

Cells: elastic fiber. Chondrocytes
F: Flexible maintains shape
L: External ear, epiglottis

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Bone CT

Osteocytes in lacuna

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Blood CT

erythrocytes, luekocytes

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Skeletal muscles

Cells: multinucleate fibers, striated
F: Voluntary movement
L: skeletal muscles attached to bone

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Cardiac muscle

Cell: branching fibers, striated.
F: involuntary pumping of the heart
L: Heart wall

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Smooth muscle

Cell: non striated
F: involuntary, moves things through organs
L: walls of hollow organs

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Nervous tissue

Cell: neurons
F: Rapid control system, voluntary and involuntary movement

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CT FUNCTIONS

-Physical protection
-support and structure framework
-Binding of structures
-Storage
-transport
-Immune protection