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Flashcards in tissues Deck (101):
1

group of cells that usually have a common origin in an embryo
-function together carry out specialized activities

Tissue –

2

composed mostly of cells with little extracellular material tightly packed together
-arranged in sheets and attached to a basement membrane
-avascular (not supplied by blood capillaries) and is nourished by diffusion from the capillaries of underlying connective tissues

Epithelial tissues –

3

– lines blood vessels and air sacs of lungs; cardiovascular and lymphatic system
-permits exchange of nutrients, wastes, and gases (O2 and CO2)
-flat, thin and scale-like; allows for rapid passage of substances through them
-function: diffusion

Simple squamous

4

– lines kidney tubules and glands
-function: secretes and reabsorbs water and small molecules
-cubelike; may have microvilli at the apical (free) surface
-role of microvilli: increase surface area for absorption

Simple cuboidal

5

- lines most digestive organs and the gallbladder
-absorbs nutrients and produces mucus
-contains columnar epithelial cells with microvilli and goblet cells

Simple columnar

6

– appears to have multiple layers of cells because the cell nuclei lie at different levels and not all cells reach the apical surface, but it is actually a simple epithelium because all its cells rest on its basement membrane
-pseudo because of varying positions of cells
-clue: all components are attached to a common basement membrane

Pseudostratified epithelium

7

outer layer of skin (epidermis), mouth, vagina
-protects against absorption, drying out (desiccation), infection

stratified squamous

8

lines ducts of sweat glands and male urethra
-secretes water and ions
-2 or more layers

Stratified cuboidal

9

lines epididymis, mammary glands, larynx
-secretes mucus
-part of the conjunctiva (thinnest skin) of the eye

Stratified columnar

10

– appearance is variable
-cells change shape from squamous to cuboidal and back (like the urinary bladder)
-depends on the organ
-role of cilia: aid secretion and absorption of whatever substance

• Transitional Epithelium

11

space/central part of cuboidal cells

Lumen –

12

– unicellular gland, epithelial cell; its secretion is mucus (sole function) to protect the organ from cell digestion
-look like empty sac-like structures

Goblet cell

13

forms brush border

microvilli

14

– lines the tracheal airway
-not a true stratified tissue
-mucus produced by goblet cell traps dust and other debris, and the cilia propel the mucus upward and away from the lungs
-Location: lining of nasal cavity, nasal sinuses, pharynx, auditory tubes, bronchi of the lungs
-“respiratory epithelium”
-function: secretes mucus and moves mucus and debris

Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium

15

-highly specialized to contract or shorten, to produce movement
-muscle cells are elongated to provide a long axis for contraction hence, they are called muscle fibers

MUSCLE TISSUE

16


1. Excitability – ability to respond to stimuli
2. Contractility - ability to shorten forcefully
3. Extensibility – ability to stretch
4. Elasticity - ability to resume resting length after contraction
5. Tonicity - ability to maintain steady state of partial contraction

properties of muscle tissue

17

contractile elements
-basic structural and functional unit of skeletal muscle
-segment between Z disks

sarcomere

18


-receives stimuli from environment or from different organs
-transmits impulses to brain and spinal cord
-bring appropriate motor responses

nervous tissue

19

properties of nervous tissue

irritability and conductivity

20

elements of nervous tissue

neurons
neuroglia

21

parts of neuron

cell body soma cyton perikaryon
processes

22

type of neuron
many processes
-many dendrites one axon
-starlike; fish eye
-seen in the brain and spinal cord

multipolar

23

type of neuron
two processes
-1 axon, 1 dendrite
-sensory neurons of eyes, nose, ears
-spindle shaped appearance of nerve cell

bipolar

24

type of neuron
– 1 process
-only one axon
-will branch and act as dendrite, the other as axon
-owl’s eye

unipolar

25


-mainly composed of extracellular matrix of ground substance and protein fibers
-highly vascular except for cartilage, tendons, and ligaments
-consist of 2 basic elements: extracellular matrix (protein fibers and ground substance) and cells
-cells are derived primarily from mesenchymal cells

Connective Tissues

26

-large, flat cells with branching processes
-secrete extracellular matrix
-true connective tissue cells

fibroblasts

27

– large, irregular –shaped with short blunt cytoplasmic processes
-develop from monocytes (a WBC type)
-capable of engulfing bacteria and cellular debris
-capable of phagocytosis; have pseudopods for engulfing

Macrophages

28

– many granules
-abundant basophilic cytoplasmic granules which obscure the nucleus
-produce histamine, chemical that dilates small blood vessels as part of inflammatory response
-can bind, ingest, kill bacteria

Mast cells

29

have signet ring appearance; nucleus is on the side (like the ‘pendant’ of a ring)
-specialized for fat storage

adipocytes

30

cart-wheel or wall clock appearance
-develop from a type of WBC called B lymphocytes
-have characteristic clock face or cart wheel appearance around the nuclear envelope
-principle produces of antibodies

Plasma cells –

31

not found in significant numbers
-migrate from blood into connective tissue in response to infection

WBC

32


- Component of umbilical cord (stem cells)
- Transient type that appears in normal development and differentiation of CT
- Consists of fibroblasts and collagen fibers with processes that appears to fuse with others
- Intercellular substance is abundant
- Soft, jelly-like and homogenous in fresh ppt
- Contains granular and fibrillar ppts when fixed
- Classic object of study is Wharton’s jelly of the umbilical cord

Mucuous CT

33

– has many spaces called areola
-most widely distributed
-soft, pliable tissue that cushions and protects the body organs it wraps
-fluid matrix contains cell types of fibers
-contains innumerable spaces called areola that provide reservoir of water and salts for surrounding tissues (for emergency)
-when a body region is inflamed, the areolar tissue in the area soaks up the excess fluid like a sponge, and the area swells and becomes puffy, a condition called edema
-looks like a tissue paper, used to see CT

• Areolar CT

34


-ground substance is fluid & relatively scanty due to abundant fat cells
-large fat cells are closely packed into fat lobules
-large size of fat cell is due to the presence of lymphoid organs (tissue, appendix, spleen)

• Adipose CT

35

dark brown to black
-forms the framework or CT ______ of bone marrow, lymphoid organs and endocrine glands
-together with phagocytes of other tissue is collectively known as reticulo-endothelial –macrophage system
-concerned with defense system of the body
-consists of network of reticular fibers and cells

• Reticular CT –

36

differs from loose mainly in great abundance of fibers

dense CT

37

messy arrangement of fibers
-seen in those organs pulled in many directions
-skin, periosteum of bone, perichondrium of cartilage
-bottom skin of frog

• Dense Irregular CT –

38

 Dense, firm but pliable
 Has cells (chondrocytes – uniqueness: cavities), fibers (collagens and elastic fibers) and ground substance (chondromucoprotein)
 Lacunae – cavities where chondrocytes are housed
 Some enveloped by a fibrous tissue sheath called perichondrium
 No nerve nor blood supply of its own (avascular) and lacks lymphatic

cartilage

39

• – with perichondrium, invisible fibers
-function: provide smooth surface for movement of joints, flexibility and support
-matrix is homogenous, clear and glasslike because matrix and the collagenous fiber have the same refractive index
-chondrocytes located in lacuna
-cells may be in singles or in groups called cell nest or isogenous group
-location: trachea, anterior ends of ribs, growing ends of limbs, pharynx

Hyaline

40

with perichondrium; branching fine fibers
-greater opacity, flexibility, elasticity
-permeated in all directions by branching elastic fibers
-location: external ears, auditory tubes, epiglottis

Elastic

41

• – no perichondrium
-transitional from between dense CT and cartilage
-chondrocytes are linearly arranged in between bundles of collagenous fibers
-with dense network of anastomosing bundles of collagenous fibers
-location: pubic symphysis, invertebral discs mandibular joints

Fibrocartilage

42

harder than cartilage, rigid
-calcified matrix

4. Bone/Osseous Tissue –

43

basic unit of compact bone

Osteon or Haversian System –

44

– small spaces between lamellae that contain the mature bone cells (chondrocytes/osteocytes)

Lacunae

45

network of minute canals that extend from the H canal to the lacunae and from one lacuna to another
-for the exchange of metabolic wastes

Canaliculi

46


-contains large spaces and in which the extracellular matrix is arranged as little beans called traveculae
-make up the ends of the bones/ in the epiphysis

Spongy /Cancellous

47

* channels of communication in compact bone

Volkmann’s canals –

48

liquid matrix which bathes the cells; does not clot because of anticoagulant

plasma

49

– liquid portion of clotted blood

serum

50

exhibit rouleaux formation because edges are sticky causing them to adhere to each other
-oxygen carrier (made possible by hgb)
-mature human ___ are non-motile, biconcave discs

rbc

51

not actually cells but fragments of megakaryocytes
-refractive irregularly shaped cells
-function: blood clotting

Platelets/ Thrombocytes

52

Attached to bone
Striated
Cylindrical; not branched
Multinucleated; nuclei at the sides or periphery
Rapid, forceful, not sustained
Voluntary

skeletal muscle

53

Seen in walls of the heart
Striated
Cylindrical but branched
Mono or binucleated; nucleus at the center

Autorhythmicity
Branched
Presence of intercalated discs (dark and thick lines)

Involuntary

cardiac

54

Seen in visceral or excretory organs
Non-striated
Spindle shaped (thick at the center); tapered
Mononucleated; nucleus at the center

Slow and sustained
Involuntary

visceral

55

Most abundant primary tissue in the body

CT

56

Form the ecm of loose CT

Fibroblast

57

Form the ecm of cartilage

Chondroblasys

58

Form the ecm of bones

Osteoblasts

59

Most abundant type of CT

Areolar

60

Forma the stroma in lymphoid organs

Reticular

61

Adipocytes are Found in groups called ---- separated by ----

Adipose lobules
Trabeculae

62

Responsible for the tensile strength of cartilahe

Collagenous

63

Responsible for the resiliency of cartilage

Gelatinous ground substance

64

When chondroblasts secrete fibers and ground substance they become trapped in ----- and become -----

Lacuna
Chondrocytes

65

How are chondrocytes nourished?

Diffusion from underlying vascular tissues

66

Predominant cartilahe in the body

Hyaline

67

Precursor of most bones

Hyaline

68

Not visible in stained preparations because?

Fibers and matrix have same refractive index

69

Chondrocytes may appear in isogenous groups of cells called

Cell nests

70

Weakest cartilahe

Hyaline

71

Provides strength and elasticity

Elastic cartilahe

72

Collagenous bundles are densely packed and arranged in a herringbone pattern

Fibrocartilage

73

Provides strength and rigidity

Fibrocartilage

74

Compact and spongy bone can be differentiates by

amount and sizes of space present

75

Dark bands where cardiac muscles connect end to end
Thus promoting adhesion of cells

Cardia muscle tissues

76

What consists intercalated disks

Gap junctions

77

Facilitates passage of ions from cell to cell resulting in rapid conduction of electrical impulses across the heart

Cardiac muscle tissue

78

Facilitates passage of ions from cell to cell resulting in rapid conduction of electrical impulses across the heart

Cardiac muscle tissue

79

What consists intercalated disks

Gap junctions

80

Dark bands where cardiac muscles connect end to end
Thus promoting adhesion of cells

Cardia muscle tissues

81

Compact and spongy bone can be differentiates by

amount and sizes of space present

82

Provides strength and rigidity

Fibrocartilage

83

Collagenous bundles are densely packed and arranged in a herringbone pattern

Fibrocartilage

84

Provides strength and elasticity

Elastic cartilahe

85

Weakest cartilahe

Hyaline

86

Chondrocytes may appear in isogenous groups of cells called

Cell nests

87

Not visible in stained preparations because?

Fibers and matrix have same refractive index

88

Precursor of most bones

Hyaline

89

Predominant cartilahe in the body

Hyaline

90

How are chondrocytes nourished?

Diffusion from underlying vascular tissues

91

When chondroblasts secrete fibers and ground substance they become trapped in ----- and become -----

Lacuna
Chondrocytes

92

Responsible for the resiliency of cartilage

Gelatinous ground substance

93

Responsible for the tensile strength of cartilahe

Collagenous

94

Adipocytes are Found in groups called ---- separated by ----

Adipose lobules
Trabeculae

95

Forma the stroma in lymphoid organs

Reticular

96

Most abundant type of CT

Areolar

97

Form the ecm of bones

Osteoblasts

98

Form the ecm of cartilage

Chondroblasys

99

Form the ecm of loose CT

Fibroblast

100

Most abundant primary tissue in the body

CT

101

made up of ECM packed with collagenous fibers
arranged in orderly manner
strong rope like structures
includes tendons and ligaments

denser regular CT

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