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Flashcards in Tissues/cells WSCU Deck (83):

Epithelial Tissue

- always found covering or lining all body surfaces all visible surfaces and all lining
-includes glands and epithelium (glands are secretory)
-is avascular
- forms protective barrier that regulates permeability
-cells may show polarity
-cells attach via CAM cell adhesion mechanism


Epithelial tissue

- physical protection
- control permeability
-provide sensation
-produce specialized sensation


Epithelial tissue specialization

- preform secretory functions
-preform transport
- maintain physical integrity
- ciliated epithelium move particles across surface


Epilthium polarity

Uneven distribution of organelles
- common characteristic for the organelles to be crammed into one side of the cell


Epithelial tissue integrity

- Cells attach via CAM cell adhesion molecules
- Cells attach at specialized cell junctions
-tight junctions
-gap junctions


Tight junctions

Fusion of cell membranes
Leak proof cell protects lower membrane
Acts as protective barrier
Keeps things from seeping down into lower tissues bacteria, water etc



One cell to another using CAM
-sunburns peel a piece of skin off sheets are caused by desmosomes
-looks like zipper


GAP junction

Permits the flow of ions
Allows cells to communicate and act as a team instead of individual



-act like root and anchor epithelium to underlying tissues


Basal Lamina (basement membrane)

-basal lamina attaches to underlying surface
~lamina lucida (acts as barrier restricts movement of proteins and lg molecules from underlying connective tissue)
~lamina densa (gives basement membrane its strength)
-Germinative cells replace short lived epithelial cells (reproductive)


Simple epithelium

One cell layer thick


Stratified epithelium

Two or more cells thick



Irregular shaped (fried egg cell)



Square nucleus right in middle





Classification of epithelium

-apical layer surface to determine overall shape


Simple epithelium

- found deep in the body well protected


Stratified epithelium

Close to surface of body


Stratified squamous Epithelium

Location: surface of skin, lining of mouth throat esophagus, rectum, anus, vagina
Function: provides physical protection against abrasion, pathogens, chemical attack

Can be keratinized or not


Simple squamous epithelium

Location: deep in body, lining ventral body cavities, endothelia lining heart and blood vessels, portion of kidney tubules, inner lining of cornea, alveoli of lungs.

Function; reduces friction, controls vessel permeability, preforms absorption and secretion
Bigger surface area so can


Simple Cuboidal Epithelia

Locations-deep inside body glands, ducts, portions of kidney tubules, thyroid gland
Functions: limited protection, secretion and absorption


Stratified cuboidal epithelia

Location: lining some ducts (rare) sweat gland duct
Functions: protection, secretion, absorption


Transitional Epithelium

Locations: urinary bladder, renal pelvis, ureters
Function: permits expansion and recoil after stretching.


Simple Columnar Epithelia

Locations: lining of stomach, intestine, gallbladder, uterine tubes, collecting ducts of kidneys.
Function: protection secretion, absorption
Permits diffusion and absorption; (any where you see simple epithelia absorption and secretion will be found example; small intestine 90% of all nutrients absorbed we don’t have time to wait for it to absorb through multiple layers need it to be fast) absorbs almost instantaneously, same as with the alveoli in lungs)


PseudoStratified columnar epithelia

Location: lining of nasal cavity, trachea, and bronchi, portions of male reproductive tract
Function: protection and secretion

looks like multiple layers of cells but they are all touching the basal lamina/basement membrane


Stratified columnar epithelia

Locations: small areas of the pharynx, epiglottis, anus, mammary gland, salvary gland ducts, urethra
function: PROTECTION


Glandular epithelium

Exocrine: secrete through ducts onto surface of gland

Endocrine glands: release hormones into surrounding tissue


Merocrine glands

Release product through exocytosis(onto surface of cell).
-through secretory vesicles produced by Golgi

Examples: saliva, sweat, mucus



- involves the loss of both a product and cytoplasm

Example: milk from mammary gland

- top part of cell filled with secretory vesicles that the cell then pinches off top part of cell and product released mixed with the cytoplasm. Cell then regenerates itself.



-destroys cell with release like oil gland
When product is produced the cell bursts open destroying the cell and releases the product

1. Mitosis replaces lost cells near basement membrane
2. Cells produce secretion increasing cell size
3. Cells burst, releasing cytoplasmic contents


Connective tissue

Establishes a structural framework
Transports fluids and dissolved materials
Protects delicate organs
Supporting surrounding and interconnecting tissues
Stores energy reserves
Defends body from microorganisms like bacteria


Connective tissue

-found below basement membrane/basal lamina
- highly vascular
-very sensitive lots of pain and pressure receptors


Connective tissue proper (two types)

1. Loose
2. Dense

-contains varied cell population
-contains various fiber types
-a syrupy ground substance


Fluid connective tissue (2 types)

1. Blood
2. Lymph

-contains a distinctive cell population
-watery ground substance with dissolved proteins
-two types


Supporting connective tissue (two types)

1. Bone
2. Cartilage

-less diverse cell population
-dense ground substance
-closely packed fibers



1. Specialized cells
2. Matrix- composed of extracellular protein fibers and a ground substance
ground substance and FIBERS (what cells are suspended in)runny, thick, gelatinous,


Connective tissue proper

-contains fibers, viscous (honey) ground substance, varied cell population
Fibroblasts (most abundant always present and secrete proteins to keep ground syrupy)
Macrophage(lg phagocytic cells eat bacteria,pathogens, damaged cells)
Adiopocytes (fat cells contain lipid droplet )
Mesenchymal cells (divide to produce daughter cells in response to injury or infection)
Melanocytes (store brown pigment melanin)
Mast cells (near blood vessels contain histamine causes inflammation)
Lymphocytes (defenders of cells)
Microphages (blood cells phagocytic)


Three types of fibers in matrix

1. Collagen (long straight, unbranched, very very flexible) =
2. Reticular (thinner than collagen, can withstand forces from all direction
3. Elastic contain protein elastin very stretchy


Connective tissue proper LOOSE

-embryonic mesenchyme(1st tissue to appear in embryo), mucous connective tissues (umbilical cord)
-areolar tissue (absorbs shock, separates skin from deeper tissues)
-Adipose tissue (fat, loose and squishy)
-reticular tissue (surrounds organs, and protects organs)


Connective tissue proper DENSE regular

1.Dense regular CT
Collagen fibers run in a nice neat parallel pattern; unilateral

-Located: between skeletal muscles and skeleton (tendons, and aponeuroses):between bones or stabilizing positions of internal organs(ligaments); covering skeletal muscles deep fasciae
-Function: provides firm attachment, conducts pull of muscles, reduces friction between muscles; stabilizes relative positions of bones.


Adipose Tissue (loose connective tissue)

Locations: deep to the skin, esp at sides, buttocks, breast, padding around eyeballs and kidneys
Function: provides padding and cushions shocks, insulates, reduces heat loss, stores energy reserves.


Loose connective tissue RETICULAR

Location: liver, kidney, spleen, lymph nodes and bone marrow
Function: provides supporting framework


Connective tissue PROPER dense IRREGULAR

Locations: capsules of visceral organs; periostea and perichondria; nerve and muscle sheaths; dermis.
Function; provides strength to resist forces applied from many direction; helps prevent over expansion of organs such as urinary bladder.

Also a lot of fibers but they are disorganized and run in all different directions. DEEP DERMIS makes skin very stretchy


Fluid connective Tissue

-distinctive collections of cells in a fluid matrix ( not all kinds of cells mixed together just a few)
-formed elements and plasma
-red blood cells (erythrocytes) , white blood cells, platelets (plasma= ground substance cells sus in)
-arteries carry blood away, veins carry blood to the heart
-capillaries=allow diffusion into interstitial fluid
-interstitial fluid entering lymphatic vessels


Supporting connective tissue

Called supporting because cartilage and bone support the rest of the body
Grows via interstitial (length) and appositional growth(width)p
Matrix is a firm gel containing chondroitin sulfate
Cells are called chondrocytes (chondro= cartilage)
Cells found in lacunae
Perichondrium separates cartilage from surrounding tissues
Three types cartilage: hyaline(most common joint cavities lots collagen) , elastic(elastic fibers very flexible ears tip of nose), fibrocartilage (densely woven collagen fibers)


BONE supporting connective tissue (osseus)

Has osteocytes
-depend on diffusion (higher concentration to lower) through canaliculi for nutrients
-little ground substance
-dense mineralized matrix (bone is hard and calcified)
-surrounded by periosteum



Simple organs that form barriers
Great at covering or lining
Composed of epithelium and connective tissues
Four types of membranes


Mucus membrane

Epithelial simple columnar lining cavities that communicate with the outside of body
Goblet cells= filled with mucus expell mucus constantly to keep moist and lubercated

-line cavities that communicate with the exterior of the body
-contain lamina propria


Serous membrane

LINE Sealed internal body cavities
Simple squamous
Keeps organs moist


Cutaneous (means skin)

(Thick )stratified squamous epithelium
-covers body surface


Synovial membrane

Produce synovial fluid which lubercate the joints
-incomplete lining within joint cavities


Connective tissue proper

-superficial fascia (hypodermis) layer of areolar tissue and fat, separates skin from underlying tissues
-deep fascia dense irregular connective tissue (can resist forces from all directions surrounds organs)
-subserous facia layer of areolar tissue, between serous membranes and deep fascia
-support and surround organs


Muscle Tissue

-specialized for contraction
Three types
1. Skeletal ~around skeleton; spindle shaped long thin; multinucleate; striated (striped appearance); voluntary
2. Cardiac ~in heart<3; branched, 1 nucleus; striated; involuntary
3. Smooth ~ lining hollow organs; spindle shaped short and fat; 1 nucleus; involuntary; not striated


Skeletal MUSCLE

-around skeleton
-cells are multinucleate
Striated Voluntary muscle
-divides via satellite cells (can repair its self it need be)


Cardiac muscle

-cardiocytes occur only in the heart
-one nucleus <3
-striated involuntary muscle looks like X
-relies on pacemaker cells for regular contraction


Smooth muscle

- NON striated involuntary muscle
-can divide and regenerate
-spindle shaped short and fat
Hollow organs uterus; bladder


Inflammation and regeneration

-injured tissues respond in coordinated fashion
-homeostasis restored by inflammation and regeneration
-increased blood flow to area after injury


Aging and tissue repair

-change with age
-repair and maintenance less efficient
-structure altered
-chemical composition altered


Cell theory

Cells are the building blocks of all plants and animals
Cells are produced by the division of preexisting cells
Cells are the smallest units that preform all vital physiological functions
Each cell maintains homeostasis at cellular level
- homeostasis at higher-levels reflects combined, coordinated action of many cells.


Somatic cell

Any cell in the body eye lash to toenails minus sex cells


Typical cell

-surrounded by extracellular fluid, which is the interstitial fluid of the tissue (keeps cell moist)
-has an outer boundary called the cell membrane or plasma membrane (functions to isolate cell from environment


Cell membrane

-isolates cell physically
- regulation of exchange with environment
-structural support
-phospholipid bilayer(individual hydrophilic heads, hydrophobic tails selectively permeable) with proteins, lipids, carbohydrates


Cytoplasm (interior of cell)

-filled with the fluid (cytosol)
-the organelles the cytosol surrounds
-jelly like



1. Non membranous organelles are not enclosed by a membrane and always in touch with the cytosol
- cytoskeleton, microvilli, centrioles, cilia, ribosomes, proteasome
2. Membranous organelles are surrounded by lipid membranes
-endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, peroxisomes, mitochondria c


Non membranous organelle Cytoskeleton

-provides strength and flexibility
Network of proteins (all protein tubes structure and strength)
-intermediate filaments
-thick filaments
-microvilli increase surface area


Centrioles non membranous organelle

-Direct the movement of chromosomes during cell division (MITOSIS)
-organize the cytoskeleton
-cytoplasm surrounding the centrioles is the centrosome (special cytoplasm that surrounds centrioles separate or divide up chromosomes during cell division)


Cilia non membranous organelle

Anchored by basal body
Beats rhythmically to move fluids across cell surface
-whenever we have cilia in body movement is necessary trachea,


Ribosome non membranous organelle

-responsible for manufacturing proteins (rough ER)
-are composed of large and small ribosomal subunit
-contain ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
-can be fixed stuck to rough ER or free ribosomes floating in cytoplasm


Endoplasmic reticulum (two parts)

-intracellular membranes involved in synthesis, storage, transportation and detoxification
- forms cisternae
Rough ER (RER) contains ribosomes stuck to it studded sand paper appearance
-forms transport vesicles
Smooth ER extremely smooth looking
- involved in lipid synthesis (0


Golgi apparatus

Forms secretory vesicles
-discharged by exostosis
Forms new membrane components (protein)
-packages lysosomes
US postal service


Lysosome and peroxisomes (trash service)

Lysosomes are
-filled with digestive enzymes
-responsible for autolysis(dissolve) of injured cells
Also autolysis organelles and bacteria that enters a cell (filled with digestive enzymes)
Peroxisomes (carry enzymes that neutralize)
-carry enzymes the neutralize toxins


Membrane flow

-continuous movement and recycling of membranes (can be damaged or parts are used to make vesicles)
-cell membrane


Mitochondria (power house)

-Responsible for ATP (adenosine triphosphate) production through aerobic (with Oxygen) respiration
Matrix= fluid contents of mitochondria (inside)
Cristae= folds in inner membrane (outside membrane)


Nucleus (center of cellular operations)

Surrounded by nuclear envelope (has pores that allow communication, but separate DNA)
-Perinuclear space
Communicates with cytoplasm through nuclear pores


Contents of nucleus

A supportive clear matrix
-one or more nucleoli
-DNA bound to histones


The genetic code

-cells information storage system
-triplet code or codon
- a gene contains all the triplets needed to code for a specific polypeptide or protein



- takes place in nucleus of cell (has DNA that has instructions on how to make a protein)
- RNA polymerase (enzyme- rides down DNA like a train on tracks) reads it and copies down instructions
-read instructions in DNA (which holds all the info)
MRNA messenger RNA



After we get the messenger RNA we need to translate it
MRNA stretches out in cytoplasm
TRNA= contains amino acid(necessary for protein production/subunit of protein) tRNA, anticodon
Chain of amino acids=protein/ end product of translation


Gene activation and protein synthesis

-gene activation initiates with RNA polymerase binding to the gene
-transcription is the formation of mRNA from DNA
-mRNA carries instructions from nucleus and cytoplasm


Translation is the formation of a protein

A functional polypeptide is constructed using mRNA codons
-sequence of codons determines the sequence of amino acids
-complementary base pairing of anticodons (tRNA) provides the amino acids in sequence



The ease with which substances can cross the cell membrane
-nothing passes through an impermeable barrier
-anything can pass through a freely permeable membrane
-cell membranes are selectively permeable



Movement of a substance from area of high concentration to low
-continues until concentration gradient is eliminated
(Breaks perfume bottle at front of a room at first only the person that broke it can smell it, but eventually the whole room can smell it equally)



Diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane in response to a solute differences
-osmotic pressure=force of water movement into a solution
-hydrostatic pressure opposes osmotic pressure
-water molecules undergo bulk flow