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Flashcards in ToB - Cartilage Deck (20):
0

What is found in the matrix of hyaline cartilage?

Proteoglycans with GAGs attached
Hyaluronic acid
Type II collagen to which hyaluronate proteoglycan aggregates bind
Chondrocytes which synthesise and maintain matrix
Chondroblasts in perichondrium

1

What is the importance of GAGs in cartilage?

They are negatively charged so attract water to form a hydrated gel matrix. The transient movement of water in the matrix is what permits resilience to varying degrees of pressure.

2

How does pressure affect chondrocytes?

Pressure loads create electrical, chemical and mechanical signals which direct the synthetic activity of the chondrocytes.

3

How are chondrocytes found in hyaline cartilage?

They lay in lacunae
May be single or may have divided mitotically to form isofenous groups.

4

Where is hyaline cartilage found?

At the surface of articulating bones
Foetal skeleton
Costal cartilage
Trachea/larynx

5

Which cartilage types contain perichondrium?

Elastic and hyaline (except on edges of articulating bones)

6

What is the perichondrium made of?

Dense CT so contains:
Fibroblast like cells that can differentiate into chondroblasts
Collagen
Nerves
Blood vessels

It has an outer fibrous layer of the CT and an inner chondrogenic layer which contains the fibroblast like cells.

7

What is appositional growth?

Cartilage can grow from the periphery as the perichondrium contains fibroblast like cells that can differentiate into chondroblasts to produce cartilage.

8

What is interstitial growth?

Deposition of further cartilage matrix by the isogenous groups of chondrocytes.

9

What is found in elastic cartilage?

Proteoglycans with GAGs attached
Hyaluronic acid
Type II collagen to which hyaluronate proteoglycan aggregates bind
Chondrocytes which synthesise and maintain matrix
Chondroblasts in perichondrium
Elastic fibres to confer elasticity

10

Where is elastic cartilage found?

Pinna of the ear
Eustachian tube
Epiglottis

11

How does elastic cartilage appear different to other cartilage forms n micrographs?

It has darker stained fibrillar material around the lacunae

12

What are the two types of matrix in hyaline cartilage and how/why do they appear different in micrographs?

Territorial - darker due to more highly sulphated

Interterritorial - lighter

13

How does cartilage obtain nutrients?

It is a vascular so obtains nutrients via diffusion. This diffusion between chondrocytes and blood vessels is permitted by a large ratio of GAGs to type II collagen.

14

When may fibrocartilage undergo calcification?

To perform fracture repair (formation of fibrocartilaginous callus)

15

What is fibrocartilage?

Proteoglycans with GAGs attached
Hyaluronic acid
Type II collagen to which hyaluronate proteoglycan aggregates bind
Chondrocytes which synthesise and maintain matrix
Fibroblasts from the dense regular CT the cartilage is combined with

16

What is the purpose of fibrocartilage?

Acts as a shock absorber and resists shearing forces

17

Where is fibrocartilage found?

Meniscus of the knee
Pubic symphasis
Sternoclaviculat joint

18

How does fibrocartilage appear different to other cartilage forms in micrographs?

Nuclei often appear in groups or rows
Flattened fibroblast nuclei are present
Thick collagen bundles are found around nuclei
Chondrocytes are smaller

19

Which cartilage types calcify with ageing?

Hyaline
Fibrocartilage