ToB S10 - Blood cells & Haemopoiesis Flashcards Preview

Semester 1 > ToB S10 - Blood cells & Haemopoiesis > Flashcards

Flashcards in ToB S10 - Blood cells & Haemopoiesis Deck (21):
1

What are the main stages of haemopoiesis?

1) Proliferation

2) Differentiation

2

Where are blood cells derived from?

Stem cells divide to form two new cells, one replaces the stem cell and the other goes on to differentiate

3

What are the two main cell lines that blood cells differentiate into?

Myeloid blasts - precursors of erythrocytes, granulocytes, platelets and monocytes

Lymphoblasts - precursors for lymphocytes

4

What regulates the rate of division and differentiation of blood cells?

Cytokines Eg erythropoietin

5

What is the function of red blood cells?

- Transport oxygen around body

- Carry haemoglobin

- Maintain haemoglobin in reduced state (ferrous)

- Maintain osmotic equilibrium

- Generate ATP

6

Describe how the size and shape of RBCs relates to their function

Biconcave flexible discs 8 um in diameter enabling them to travel through microvasculature with a minimum diameter of 3.5 um

7

Outline the process of the haemoglobin catabolism

Haemoglobin

- Haem - bilirubin in liver

- Stercobilin and urobilinogen in small intestine

Stercobilin excreted in faeces, urobilinogen excreted in urine via kidneys

8

What are reticulocytes?

Immature RBCs

9

List the three types of lymphocyte

T cell, B cell, Natural killer cells

10

Where do T cells differentiate?

Thymus

11

What are the different forms of T cell and their function

CD4 T Helper cells - Activate B cells

CD8 T Killer cells - cytotoxic and stimulates apoptosis

12

What are the different forms of B cell and their function?

Plasma cell - produce antigen specific antibodies

Memory cell - retain antibodies for faster response to antigen or second exposure

13

What are monocytes?

Circulating cells that migrate to infected cells to become macrophages which are capable of phagocytosis and interaction of T cells

14

What are the functions of neutrophils?

- Chemotaxis

- Phagocytosis

15

What hormone stimulates neutrophil production and activity?

G-CSF (granulocyte colony stimulating hormone)

16

How long are neutrophils in circulation for?

10 hours

17

What are eosinophils?

Cells that are capable of phagocytosis, allergic reactions and release of cytotoxic enzymes to destroy large particles

18

What are basophils?

Mediate acute inflammatory responses, contain histamines and heparin

19

What colours do eosinophils and basophils stain?

Eosinophils- red

Basophils- dark purple

20

Where are platelets produced?

Megakarocytes in bone marrow

21

How are platelets involved in blood clotting?

- Capable of adhesion to damaged cell wall and aggregation with other platelets through glycoproteins on phospholipid membrane which also enables binding of clotting factors

- Alpha granules can release calcium ions