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Flashcards in Tomahawk Workbook Deck (107):
1

What type of engine does it have

Four cylinder horizontally opposed

2

What flaps does the tomahawk have

Plain/simple flap

3

What does a mass balance do

Move the centre of gravity closer to the hinge line to prevent flutter

4

What type of tail plane does it have

A T tailplane

5

What fuel does it use

Although the minimum octane fuel is 80/87, all club aircraft are to be run on AVGAS 100/130 only

6

What type of fuel system does it have

The Tomahawk fuel system has two wing tanks, each holding 60.5 litres. Each tank has 4 litres unusable fuel, giving total fuel capacity of 121 litres and 113 useable

7

What consumption rate is used

25 litres per hour

8

What the total endurance

a total endurance with full fuel of 4 hours and 31 minutes, so just over than 3 hours 45 minutes with club fuel reserves

9

What should be looked for when draining fuel

Each should be checked before flight for any water in the fuel, and contaminants, and for the correct colour and grade of fuel (Green, AVGAS 100/130)

10

What electrical system does it have

The Tomahawk has a 14-volt electrical system, powered by a 14 volt, 60-amp alternator, and backed up by a 12-volt lead – acid battery

11

What should you do if you have an alternator failure

In the event of an alternator failure, the reading on the ammeter in the cockpit will drop to zero, and the power from the battery will slowly be used up. If this is noticed in flight, the first thing to do is to recycle the alternator switch

12

What will happen if voltage is more than 16.5V

The alternator has an overvoltage relay, which will disconnect the alternator field in the event of a voltage more than 16.5V. Recycling the switch will reset the alternator field in the event of this happening

13

What should you do following an alternator failure if recycling doesn't work

If this does not remedy the situation, electrical load should be reduced to a minimum, and the flight terminated as soon as practicable

14

What should you do if a circuit breakers popped out

If one of the circuit breakers pops in flight, leave it out for about 30 seconds to cool, the push it back in. If it pops again, leave it out, and complete the flight without that system

15

Vne (never exceed speed)

138kts

16

Vr (rotation speed)

55kts

17

Vno (max cruise speed)

110kts

18

Va (design maneuvering speed)

103kts at MAUW

19

Vfe (maximum flap extension speed)

89kts

20

Vy (best rate of climb)

70kts

21

Vx (best angle of climb)

62kts (use 65)

22

Vs1 (stall speed clean configuration)

52kts

23

Vs0 (stall speed with full flap)

49kts

24

Best Glide Speed

70kts

25

White Arc Limits

79 to 89kts

26

Maximum All Up Weight (MAUW)

758kg

27

Maximum Baggage Capacity

45kg

28

Fuel Consumption Rate

25 Litres per hour (12 minutes per 5 litres)

29

Fuel Capacity

121 litres

30

Unusable Fuel

8 litres

31

Oil

5 to 6 quarts

32

Static RPM limits

2200 to 2350 RPM

33

Mag drop limit

175 RPM, no more than 50 RPM difference

34

Demonstrated Crosswind Component

15kts

35

Group rating

6

36

Bad Weather Configuration

1 stage of flaps, 75kts

37

Documents to be carried

The Tech log, Flight Manual and Airworthiness Certificate, your medical, AIP Volume 4, the Route Guide, SOP’s and Flight Crew Operations Manual (FCOM) must be brought on every flight

38

Take off and emergency brief

Decide on runway, type of takeoff and brief the actions to take in the event of EFDTO, EFATO sufficient runway or EFATO insufficient runway

39

After start procedures oil pressure rise

Within 30 seconds

40

Crosswind taxi technique

Hold controls into wind if crosswind is coming from in front of aircraft, hold controls with the wind if crosswind is coming from behind the aircraft

41

Taxi procedure turning left

Artificial Horizon wing bar level, turn indicator/coordinator left, balance ball right, direction indicator numbers decreasing and compass numbers decreasing

42

Taxi procedures turning right

Artificial Horizon wing bar level, turn indicator/coordinator right, balance ball left, direction indicator numbers increasing, and compass numbers increasing

43

Carb heat RPM drop

50 to 100 RPM

44

Voltmeter run ups

14 volt

45

Suction run ups

4.8 to 5.2. If suction is low or at zero the artificial horizon and direction indicator will not function as well as they should do

46

Slow running run ups

500 to 800 RPM. If RPM is below 500 the engine may be too cold and could stop. If it is above 800 the engine gives too much power when idling and this could increase landing distances

47

TCTWO threats

Threats identified by all crew that specifically relate to today’s flight. Brief strategies for mitigation and management

48

TCTWO charts

Brief departure procedure, show on chart

49

TCTWO terrain

Visual Terrain Clearance Other terrain considerations

50

TCTWO weather

Significant weather, or state nil “significant weather”

51

TCTWO operational

Relevant NOTAMS Safe endurance Other considerations

52

ABRIEFS

A – ATIS copied
B – Brief approach and aerodrome plate
R– Radio set
I – Instruments, DI aligned with compass, QNH set
E – Engine, T’s and P’s Green, Mixture Rich, Fuel Pump as required
F – Fuel, check contents and switch to fullest tank
S – Security, Hatches and Harnesses secure

53

Elevator

Effect pitch
Axis lateral

54

Aileron

Effect roll
Axis longitudinal

55

Rudder

Effect yaw
Axis normal

56

Elevator effect and further effect

Pitch up or down, no further effect

57

Aileron effect and further effect

Roll left or right, further slip, yaw, spiral descent

58

Rudder effect and further effect

Yaw left or right, further skid, roll, spiral descent

59

Increase power

Nose pitches up
Yaw to the left

60

Decrease power

Nose pitches down
Yaw to the right

61

Effect of flap on the climb

Flaps increase drag and therefore require an increase in power for S & L flight.
The use of flap will result in reduced surplus power being available over that required for S & L and therefore there is a reduced angle and rate of climb

62

Effect of flap on the glide

Results in a lower nose attitude and increased rate and angle of descent due to the increased drag

63

Effect of flap on the stall

For and given airspeed the CL will be higher and the VS will be lower

64

To enter climb

Ref point, ref alt, lookout
P- full power, rudder to prevent yaw
A- attitude, set climb attitude
T- trim

65

To resent S and L after a climb

Ref point, ref alt, lookout
A- attitude,set S and L and hold
P- power, 2300 RMP once airspeeds through 80kts, rudder to prevent yaw
T- trim

66

Medium turns

30°

67

Climbing and descending turns

15°

68

Stalling

Height Recover by 2500’ AGL
Height
Airframe No flap (U/C up, pitch fine)
Security Harness secure, no loose objects Location
Engine T’s & P’s green, Mixture rich, Fuel pump on Lookout (90°) Location Not over airfields, airspace, built up areas or cloud Lookout Turn through 360°

69

Early in the take off roll what should you verbalise

T's and P's in the green, rpm's good and airspeeds active

70

Engine failure during take off

Close the throttle; gently apply full brake while keeping the weight off the nose; vacate runway

If using grass- if the airspeeds not 40kts before the cones, abort the take off

71

Engine failure after take off with sufficient runway remaining

Close the throttle and lower the nose; land back on the runway using flap as required

72

Engine failure after take off with insufficient runway remaining

Close the throttle and lower the nose; find somewhere suitable to land 30° either side of the nose; carb heat on; fuel pump on; use flap as required, MAYDAY call if time permits

73

Take off performance brief

Determine whether your using grass or seal
Cover the take off configuration and speeds
State whether take off will be a normal take off or short field take off and whether crosswind technique has to be used

74

Departure brief

Identify which runway is in use
Brief the departure you are expecting
Brief the expected crosswind turn (left or right hand turn)

75

Passenger brief

This is a security area past this fence so please stay beside me at all times and don't touch anything. To get into the aircraft place one foot on the step, hold on to the handle above and step up on the black part only. To exit the same applies but make sure you jump off the back of the wing not the front. In the rear of the aircraft we have a fire extinguisher, a first air kit and an axe, your welcome to use these if in the rare event an emergency arises.
To use your seat belt it's the same as in your car, make sure its secure and fastened at all times. Please keep your hands and feet away from the control and don't touch them during the duration of the flight. Please don't speak when someone is talking on the radio or when I am transmitting. In an emergency if for some reason I'm unable to use the radio, push this button down and that will transmit on the set frequency. The ELT is an emergency switch, don't touch it unless it is an emergency, just switch the ELT on and it will send out a signal to emergency services. Smoking is prohibited at all times on this flight and cell phones must be turned off.
The expected duration of this flight is about an hour and a half and we will first vacate the circuit and track to the watchtower and commence low flying then track to Darfield North where we will carry out the other exercises then join the circuit back at west melton. Explain the weather and conditions/ performance for the flight. Do you have any questions?

76

Forced landing MAYDAY call

MAYDAY MAYDAY MAYDAY
echo Yankee Charlie
Engine failure
2 to the west of Darfield
Intending on landing in a paddock
2 persons on board
Will contact when on the ground

77

Precautionary landing PAN PAN call

Switch frequency to chch 118.4
PANPAN PANPAN PANPAN
Christchurch tower
Echo Yankee Charlie
Making a precautionary landing due to weather
LFZ 1
Intending on landing in a paddock
2 persons on board
Will contact you when I land

78

HASSELL (stalling)

Height (recover by 2500' AGL)
Airframe (clean/ dirty configuration)
Security (harness secure, no loose objects)
Engine (T's and P's in the green, mixtures rich, fuel pump on)
Location (no built up areas, airspace or cloud)
Lookout (turn through 360°)

79

HASELLL low flying

Height (1000' entry, operate at 700' AGL)
Airframe (first stage of flaps and 75kts)
Security (harnesses secure)
Engine (t's and p's green, mixtures rich, fuel pump on)
Location (Low fly zone 1)
Lookout (boundary inspection on arrival)
Lights (all lights on)

80

What is a SIGMET

Provides information on observed forecast hazardous weather conditions
Four hours validity (six for volcanic ash and tropical cyclones)
AMSL
New Zealand FIR (NZZC)
Auckland oceanic FIR (NZZO)

81

What is an ARFOR

Area forecast, intended for domestic VFR and IFR flights below 10,000'. 17 ARFOR areas designated by 2 letter codes
5:30-6:10
11:30-12:10 local time
AMSL
°T

82

What is a TAF and TREND

TAF- Aerodrome forecast for a specific aerodrome presented in code
TREND- forecast, valid for 2 hours, attached to the end of a METAR or SPECI stating any differences than prescribed

Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch 2300,0500,1100,1700 UTC
Other aerodromes, 0230-0430, 0930-1015,1400-1445 local time
Validity - first 2 digits date, second 2 time
AAL
8km radius
°T

83

What is a METAR

Routine meteorological report, compiled manually for a specific aerodrome
Issued hourly on the hour AAL
8km radius
°T

84

What is a METAR AUTO

A routine meteorological report provided by an automatic weather station for a specific aerodrome
Issued every half hour, 24 hours a day
AAL
°T

85

What is a SPECI

A SPECI is a METAR issued outside of the routine issue time of a METAR (NZWP, NZOH, NZMF only)
Issued when required and will have issue time other than on the hour
AAL
°T

86

What is an ATIS

A continuous plain language broadcast of the current conditions at an aerodrome on a discrete frequency
Issued at irregular times
AAL
°M

87

What colour line is a controlled area (CTA)

Purple bold line

88

What line is a control zone (CTR)

Blood blue line

89

What colour is a VFR transit lane (T) or a general aviation area (G)

Light blue big thick line

90

What colour is a danger, restricted, military or volcanic area on the map

Red solid line

91

What line is a mandatory broadcast zone

Blue dots

92

What is a low flying zone line

Light blue thin line

93

What is a common frequency zone line

Blue diamonds

94

Fire during start

Mixture idle cut off
Crank engine
Throttle open
Fuel pump off
Tank selector off

95

Fire in flight

Check source if fire
Tank selector off
Close throttle
Mixture idle cut off
Fuel pump off
Cabin heat off
Defroster off
Prepare for FLWOP

96

Smoke in cabin (electrical fire)

Master switch off
Cabin heat off
Defroster off
Vents open to clear the cabin
Land as soon as practicable

97

Loss of oil pressure

Land as soon as possible, prepare for power off landing

98

Loss of fuel pressure

Fuel pump on
Fuel selector to fullest tank

99

High oil temperature

Land at the nearest aerodrome
Prepare for power off landing

100

Alternator failure

Verify failure
Reduce electrical load
Check circuit breakers
Alt switch off for 1 second only
If not output:
Alt switch off

101

Engine roughness

Carb heat on, if roughness continues after one min,
Carb heat off
Adjust mixture
Fuel pump on
Change tanks
Check t's and p's
Magnetos L,R, both

102

What is VA

Manoeuvring speed is the maximum speed t which application of full available aerodynamic control will not over stress the airplane

103

What is VNO

Maximum structural cruising speed is the speed that should no be exceeded except in smooth air and then only with caution

104

What is VS

Stalling speed or the minimum steady flight speed at which the airplane is controllable

105

What is VX

Best angle of climb speed is the airspeed which delivers the greatest gain of altitude in the shortest possible horizontal distance

106

What is VY

Best rate of climb speed is the airspeed which delivers the greatest gain in altitude in the shortest possible time

107

Does the manoeuvre speed decrease with lighter weight

Manoeuvring speed decreases at lighter weight as the effects of aerodynamic forces become more pronounced. Linear interpolation may be used for intermediate gross weights. Manoeuvring speed should not be exceeded while operating in rough air