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Flashcards in Tools of Oceanography Deck (42):
1

Sounding is a technique used?

to measure the depth of water beneath a ship, where a package is attached to a line and dropped to the seafloor. 

2

Sidescan sonar is what?

A broad sound beam is sent from an instrument tied behind a boat. 

3

Port

The left side of a boat.

4

Starboard

The right side of a boat.

5

Bow

The front of a boat.

6

Stern

The back of a boat.

7

Identify and describe.

Reversing thermometer. Used in Nansen bottles. Only records temperature when flipped 180 degrees, and temperature does not changes while being hauled to the surface. It can therefore record temperature at a specific depth. 

8

Identify and describe. 

Hydrometer, type used in aquariums. Measures salinity in parts per thousand (ppt). Functionally measures the change in density and therefore does not account for density changes due to temperature. 

9

Identify and describe. 

Salinometer. Measures salinity in parts per thousand. Functionally measures the electrical conductivity. 

10

Identify and describe.

Secchi Disk. Measures vertical visibility or turbidity. It is lowered by hand on a line until the disk becomes invisible. 

11

Identify and describe.

Surface drifter. Used to measure currents. Many are released at a time in hopes of recapturing a few. (Can be a form of pollution.)Also used, same purpose: drift cards, seabed drifters (same as these but without a float)

12

Identify and describe. 

Grab sampler. They are used to sample surface sediments. They may mix the sediments and are not used for deeper samples.

13

Identify and describe.

Box corer. A supporting framework is lowered to the seafloor and it sinks 20 or 30 cm into the sediment, where it pulls large amounts of sediment up with minimal disturbance. May be very heavy and difficult to deploy. 

14

Identify and describe.

Piston corer. Used to obtain long vertical samples (up to 50 m) of soft sediments. 

15

Identify and describe.

Nansen bottle. Used to sample water at a specific depth. Nansen bottles are attached to a wire; a stainless steel messenger slids down and triggers the bottle to move into an "upside down" inverted position. This traps seawater. 

16

Identify and describe. 

Mechanical current meter. Measures current rate and direction. This is one type. Different types can measure current in different ways; by rate of rotation of a rotor, rate of rotation of a propeller, and by the angle of which the meter is pushed. 

17

Identify and describe. 

Plankton net. Designed to collect plankton (preferably alive). Extremely fine mesh.

18

Identify and describe. 

Purse seine. Used to quickly encircle schools of fish and capture them. 

19

What type of lights is required for all boats longer than 5 meters? 

Running lights

20

On a boat, what color running light is to be mounted and seen from the stern? 

White

21

On a boat, what color running light should be mounted and seen from the port side? 

Red

22

On a boat, what color running light should be mounted and seen from starboard?

Green

23

Powerboats must display what kind of light?

White masthead light, mounted higher than running lights

24

Sailboats are not required to have what kind of light? 

Mast light

25

Mast lights can be used in combination to indicate the "status" of a boat. What do the combination of lights mean in this system? 

Red over red: not under commandRed over white: fishingGreen over white: trawlingWhite over white: short tow lineWhite over white over white: long tow lineRed over white over red: Restricted in maneuverability (may be carrying out underwater operations)

26

When referring to boats, a gunwale is? 

The upper edge of the side of a boat

27

When referring to sailboats, a jib is?  

small triangular sail near the front

28

When referring to sailboats, a boom is?

A long pole fixed to the bottom of the mainsail, in order to maneuver the sail

29

When referring to boats, a cleat is?

Metal fitting to which a rope can be fastened

30

SCUBA stands for? 

Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus

31

What is an ROV?

Remotely Operated Vehicle; they are tethered to a boat and are operated by a person on the surface. 

32

What is an AUV?

Autonomous Underwater Vehicle; these do not require input from an operator. 

33

What are Alvin's most famous exploits? Who operates Alvin? 

Surveying the wreck of the RMS Titanic (1986) Locating lost hydrogen bomb in Mediterranean (1966) Exploration of the first known hydrothermal vents (1970s)
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute

34

The Jason/Medea system is a what, operated by who?

ROV, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute

35

Jason Jr. was a prototype of Jason. What was it used for? 

Small ROV. Assisted in finding the RMS Titanic; deployed from Alvin and explored areas otherwise inaccessible to Alvin. 

36

REMUS stands for what? 

Remote Environmental Monitoring UnitS. AUVs designed by Woods Hole; torpedo shaped and designed to be operated by a laptop computer. 

37

Mast light red over red means

Not under command

38

Mast light red over white means

Fishing

39

Mast light green over white means

Trawling

40

Mast light white over white means

short tow line

41

Mast lights Red over white over red means

Restricted in maneuverability (may be carrying out underwater operations)

42

Mast light White over white over white means

long tow line