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Flashcards in Topic 1 Deck (20):
1

Motor Learning

-sub discipline of motor behavior
-the study of the processes involved in acquiring the capability to execute a motor skill, whereby there is a relatively permanent change in behavior resulting from practice or experience

2

Motor Developent

-sub discipline of motor behavior
-the study of the continuous changes in human motor behavior as we proceed through the life span, and the biological and environmental factors that affect these changes

3

Motor Control

-sub discipline of motor behavior
-study of processes involved in movement and how various movements are controlled by the central nervous system (eg neurophysiological processes)

4

Motor Homunculous

amount of cerebral cortex dedicated to the given body region is proportional to the nerve supply (innervation) of that region within the brain

5

Motor Behavior

-umbrella term encompassing motor learning, control, and development
-the science that concerns the way in which we learn, control, and develop motor skill

6

Growth
Development

-observable change in quantity (eg body size)
-change in level of functioning

7

Maturation

timing and tempo of progress toward the mature biological state (timetable of events)
eg and organizational change in the function of an organ or tissue

8

Current approach to motor development

-adoption of a lifespan approach
-an individual is studied through both the regressive (loss of capability) and progressive (possitive change) phases of development

9

Cephalo-caudal principle

-from head to tail-development of the human from the top of the body downward to the feet
-infant's first major milestone is holding their head

10

Proximodistal Principle

-from proximal to points distal
-exception: control of fingers before thumb

11

Prenatal Period

-conception to birth
-embryonic period=up to 8 weeks
-fetal period=8 weeks to birth (often seen as the human point)

12

Early childhood period

-birth to 6 years
1. infancy-birth to onset of walking-neonatal period=birth to 22 weeks
2. toddlerhood-onset of walking to 3 years
3. preschool-age-3-5 years
4. kindergarten-age-5-6 years (until grade 1)

13

Middle Childhood Period
Late Childhood Period

-6-8 years (grades 1-3)
-9-12 years (grades 4-7). also referred to as preadolescence and tween years

14

Adolescence Period

-puberty
-approx 12-18 years, highly variable
-influenced by secular trends: physical inactivity speeds up the onset of puberty

15

Adulthood Period

-height growth cessation to death
-early (young) adulthood=18 or 20 to 40 years
-middle adulthood=40 to 80
late (older) adulthood=60 to 80

16

Universality
Variability

-individuals in a species show similar development (stages)
-individual differences exist, which constitutes variation in behavior

17

epigenesis

This idea is that development is the result of an ongoing, bi-directional interchange between one’s biological characteristics (including
heredity) and the environment

18

affordances

opportunities for action (stimulation of motor development) from events, objects, places in the home

19

cross sectional design
longitudinal design

-subjects are chosen so that characteristics of different age groups are as similar as possible (cohort affects)
-data collected on one individual over a period of time

20

microgenic design
sequential design

-change is monitored over a period of sessions until the individual has mastered the task (until change ends)
-study several different-aged samples over a period of years