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1

What are 5 functions of the skeleton?
Anagram: Bones Make Moving Bones Possible

Protection of vital organs
Muscle attachment
Joint for movement
Blood cell production
Mineral storage

2

Explain protection of vital organs?

During physical activity protection is crucial for long term health and performance, as it reduces the chance of injure and allows for them to continue playing.

3

Explain muscle attachment?

Bones provide a surface for muscles to attach to via tendons. When muscles contract movement is achieved.

4

Explain joints for movement?

A joint is a place where two or more bones meet and allow movement to take place, and the movements are crucial in performance of physical activity.

5

Explain blood cell production?

Red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets are produced in bone marrow contained in certain bones.

6

Explain mineral storage?

Calcium and phosphorus, along with other minerals, are stored within the bones. These minerals are necessary for vital body functions.

7

What 4 types of bones are there?

Long Bones
Short Bones
Flat Bones
Irregular Bones

8

Explain Long Bones?

Bones that are longer than they are wide, like a femur. These play a key part in leverage and movement.

9

Explain Short Bones?

Bones that are box-like in shape, like tarsals. These are designed to be weight bearing.

10

Explain Flat Bones?

Thin, plate bones that act like a shell, such as the cranium. They provide protection and a large surface to which muscles can attach.

11

Explain irregular bones?

Unusually shaped bones for a unique purpose, like vertebrae. These also provide protection and a large surface to which muscles can attach.

12

Name the long bones?

Humerus
Radius
Phalanges
Metacarpals
Femur
Tibia
Fibula
Metatarsals
Ulna

13

Name the short bones?

Carpal
Tarsals

14

Name the flat bones?

Cranium
Ribs
Sternum
Scapula
Pelvis
Clavicle

15

Name the irregular bones?

Vertebral column
Patella

16

Name the 7 parts of the Vertebral column and amount of vertebrae?
Anagram: Cute Teddy Bears Love Some Cuddles

Atlas
Axis
Cervical (7)
Thoracic (12)
Lumbar (5)
Sacrum (5 fused)
Coccyx (4 fused)

17

What are the 4 joints and where they are found?

Pivot joint - seen at the atlas/axis at the top of the neck.
Hinge joint- seen at the elbow, knee and ankle.
Ball and socket - seen at the hip and shoulder.
Condyloid joint -seen at the wrist.

18

What is the movements possible at different joints?

Flexion
Extension
Abduction
Adduction
Rotation
Circumduction
Dorsi-flexion
Plantar-flexion

19

What is flexion?

The angle at a joint is decreased. Flexion can be seen as bending at a hinge joint and a condyloid joint, or when a limb moves in a forwards direction at a ball and socket joint.

20

What is extension?

The angle at a joint is increased. Extension can be seen as straightening at a hinge joint and a condyloid joint, or when a limb moves in a backwards direction at a ball and socket joint.

21

What is abduction?

Abduction can be seen when a limb is moved away from the midline of the body at a ball and socket joint or condyloid joint.

22

What is adduction?

Adduction can be seen when a limb is brought back towards the midline of the body at a ball and socket joint or a condyloid joint.

23

What is rotation?

This is a twisting action where part of the body twists around its long axis at a pivot joint or at a ball and socket joint.

24

What is circumduction?

This is a combination of flexion, abduction and extension and looks like you are drawing a circle in the air. This is possible at ball and socket joints and condyloid joints.

25

What is dorsi-flexion?

Doris-flexion is only seen at the ankle - a hinge joint - when the toes are raised towards the shin.

26

What is plantar-flexion?

Plantar-flexion is only seen at the ankle, when the toes are pointed away from the shin.

27

What are ligaments?

Ligaments connect bone to bone and hold the joint together. They are tough and slightly elastic, so they help to prevent dislocations. A dislocation happens when a bone is forced out of place.

28

What is a tendon?

Tendons connect muscles to bones, ensuring that when a muscle contracts, the effort is transferred to the bone and movement is created.

29

What are the 3 types of muscle?

Cardiac muscle
Involuntary muscle
Voluntary muscle

30

What is vascular shunting?

A process that increases blood flow to active areas during exercise by diverting blood away from inactive areas. This is achieved by vasoconstriction and vasodilation.

31

What is vasodilation?

The widening of the internal diameter (lumen) of a blood vessel to increase blood flow.

32

What is vasoconstriction?

The narrowing of internal diameter (lumen) of a blood vessel to decrease blood flow.

33

What are the muscles on the upper half of the body?

Deltoid
Triceps
Biceps
Latissimus dorsi
Pectoralis major
External obliques

34

What are the muscles on the lower half of the body?

Hip flexors
Gluteus maximus
Quadriceps
Hamstrings
Tibialis anterior
Gastrocnemius

35

What is extension?

The angle at a joint is increased. Extension can be seen as straightening at a hinge joint and a condyloid joint, or when a limb moves in a backwards direction at a ball and socket joint.

36

What is abduction?

Abduction can be seen when a limb is moved away from the midline of the body at a ball and socket joint or condyloid joint.

37

What is adduction?

Adduction can be seen when a limb is brought back towards the midline of the body at a ball and socket joint or a condyloid joint.

38

What is rotation?

This is a twisting action where part of the body twists around its long axis at a pivot joint or at a ball and socket joint.

39

What is circumduction?

This is a combination of flexion, abduction and extension and looks like you are drawing a circle in the air. This is possible at ball and socket joints and condyloid joints.

40

What is dorsi-flexion?

Doris-flexion is only seen at the ankle - a hinge joint - when the toes are raised towards the shin.

41

What is plantar-flexion?

Plantar-flexion is only seen at the ankle, when the toes are pointed away from the shin.

42

What are ligaments?

Ligaments connect bone to bone and hold the joint together. They are tough and slightly elastic, so they help to prevent dislocations. A dislocation happens when a bone is forced out of place.

43

What is a tendon?

Tendons connect muscles to bones, ensuring that when a muscle contracts, the effort is transferred to the bone and movement is created.

44

What are the 3 types of muscle?

Cardiac muscle -The heart
Involuntary muscle - The intestines
Voluntary muscle - The triceps

45

What is vascular shunting?

A process that increases blood flow to active areas during exercise by diverting blood away from inactive areas. This is achieved by vasoconstriction and vasodilation.

46

What is vasodilation?

The widening of the internal diameter (lumen) of a blood vessel to increase blood flow.

47

What is vasoconstriction?

The narrowing of internal diameter (lumen) of a blood vessel to decrease blood flow.

48

What are the muscles on the upper half of the body?

Deltoid
Triceps
Biceps
Latissimus dorsi
Pectoralis major
External obliques

49

What are the muscles on the lower half of the body?

Hip flexors
Gluteus maximus
Quadriceps
Hamstrings
Tibialis anterior
Gastrocnemius

50

What are the characteristics of the deltoid?

Location: Top of the shoulder.
Role: Abducts the arm at the shoulder.
Example: Lifting your arms above your head to block the ball in volleyball.

51

What are the characteristics of the latissimus dorsi?

Location: Side of the back
Role: Abducts the upper arm at the shoulder / rotates the humerus.
Example: Bringing arms back to side during a straight jump in trampolining.

52

What are the characteristics of the pectoralis major?

Location: Front of upper chest.
Role: Abducts the arm at the shoulder.
Example: Follow-through from a forehand drive in tennis.

53

What are the characteristics of the external obliques?

Location: Between lower ribs and abdomen.
Role: Rotates the trunk and helps pull chest down.
Example: Rotating trunk while throwing javelin.

54

What are antagonistic pairs?

Skeletal muscles work together to provide movement. While one muscle contracts, another relaxes to create movement.

55

What are the characteristics of the tricep and bicep and what are they?

Antagonistic pair
Biceps:
Location: Front of upper arm.
Role: Flexion of the arm at the elbow.
Example: Upwards phase of a bicep curl.
Triceps:
Location: Back of upper arm.
Role: Extension of the arm at the elbow.
Example: Straightening the arms in a chest press.

56

What are the characteristics of the quadricep and hamstring and what are they?

Antagonistic pair
Quadricep:
Location: Front of upper leg.
Role: Extension of the leg at the knee.
Example: Straightening the leading leg going over a hurdle.
Hamstring:
Location: Back of the upper leg.
Role: Flexion of the leg at the knee.
Example: Bending the trailing leg going over a hurdle.

57

What are the characteristics of the gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior and what are they?

Antagonistic pair
Gastrocnemius:
Location: Back of lower leg.
Role: Plantar-flexion at the ankle.
Example: Pointing the toes when performing a pike jump in trampolining.
Tibialis anterior:
Location: Front of lower leg.
Role: Dorsi-flexion at the ankle.
Example: Bringing the toes up towards the shins when extending the legs in the long jump.

58

What are the characteristics of the hip flexors and gluteus maximus and what are they?

Antagonistic pair
Hip flexors:
Location: Very top of front of upper leg.
Role: Flexion of leg at the hip.
Example: Bringing the legs up i n a seat-drop trampolining.
Gluteus maximus:
Location: Buttocks.
Role: Extension of the leg at the hip.
Example: Lifting the leg back at the hip while running.

59

What are the different muscle fibres?

Slow twitch - Type I
Fast Twitch - Type IIA and Type IIX

60

What are type I muscle fibres?

Produce low force
Slow speed of contraction
High endurance
Advantage - Good in endurance activities to keep going without tiring, for example leg muscles in a cross-country race.
Disadvantage - Do not produce much power.

61

What are type IIA muscle fibres?

Produce high force
Moderate speed of contraction
Medium endurance
Advantage - More resilient to fatigue than type IIX, for example, in a 400m sprint.
Disadvantage - Not as powerful as type IIX or as resistant to fatigue as type I.

62

What are type 11X muscle fibres?

Produce very high force
Fast contracting
Low endurance
Advantage - Good for short, explosive actions requiring power, strength and speed, for example, a sprint start or a 100m sprint.
Disadvantage - Only provide power for a very short time before becoming fatigued.

63

What do the cardiovascular system consist of?

The blood - the medium that the gases, blood cells and nutrients are transported in.
The blood vessels - the structures that carry the blood.
The heart - which circulates blood out to the blood vessels each time it beats.

64

What does the cardiovascular system do?

Transport of nutrients - nutrients are broken down from the food we eat and transported to the body in the blood.
Transport of oxygen - it carries oxygen to the muscles and vital organs.
Transport of carbon dioxide - it carries carbon dioxide away from the body to get rid of it.
Clotting of open wounds - platelets are carried in the blood help to clot wounds forming a plug.
Regulation of body temperature - When we get hot or cold vasodilation or vasoconstriction occurs so we get to the correct temperature.

65

What is are the valves in the heart?

Tricuspid valve - On the right side side of the heart between the right atrium and left ventricle.
Bicuspid valve - On the left side of the heart between the left atrium and the left ventricle.
Semi-lunar valves - Between the ventricles and the pulmonary artery and vein.
Valves help keep the blood moving forward by shutting behind blood that has passed through, to prevent it from flowing back where it came.

66

What are the blood vessels in the heart?

Vena cava - The main vein bringing deoxygenated blood back to the heart so it can be pumped to the lungs to collect oxygen.
Aorta - The main artery and carries oxygenated blood away from the left ventricle to take oxygen to the working muscles.
Pulmonary artery - Receives deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to take to the lungs to receive oxygen.
Pulmonary vein - Brings oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium.

67

What are the areas of the heart?

Right atrium - Receives deoxygenated blood from the body via the vena cava.
Left atrium - Receives oxygenated blood from the lungs via the pulmonary artery.
Right ventricle - Receives deoxygenated blood from the right atrium via the tricuspid valve.
Left ventricle - Receives oxygenated blood from the left atrium via bicuspid valve.
Septum - The wall that separates the left and right sides of the heart.

68

What are the characteristics of arteries?

Arteries
Structure:
Thick muscular and elastic walls.
Small internal diamter.

Functions:
Carry blood at high pressure away from the heart.
Mainly carry oxygenated blood.

Relevance:
Blood pressure increases during exercise as the working muscles demand more oxygen, increasing blood flow. The muscles in the artery walls contract and relax automatically. When the muscle relaxes, the arteries dilate so there is more room for the blood to travel through, helping regulate blood pressure.

69

What are characteristics of veins?

Vein
Structure:
Thin walls.
Contains valves.
Large internal diameter.

Functions:
Carry blood at low pressure towards heart.
Mainly carry deoxygenated blood.

Relevance:
Veins carry deoxygenated blood from the muscles. The wide internal diameter allows blood to pass through more easily and the valves help return the blood to the heart by preventing back flow due to low pressure.

70

What are the characteristics of capillaries?

Capillaries
Structure:
Very thin walls (only one-cell thick).
Small internal diameter.

Functions:
Link smaller arteries with smaller veins.
Carry blood at very low pressure.

Relevance:
Allow gaseous exchange. Walls are very thin to allow for gases and nutrients to pass through them, therefore getting oxygen to the muscles and removing carbon dioxide.

71

What is vascular shunting?

When you exercise your working muscles need more oxygen. Oxygen is attached to the red blood cells in the blood and carried to your active muscles.
Blood can be diverted away from inactive areas to the working muscles.

72

What is vasoconstriction?

Vasoconstriction means that the blood vessels are constricted to make them smaller..
When you start to exercise, chemical changes trigger signals from your nervous system.
These signals cause the blood vessels that supply the inactive areas (for example, the digestive system) to constrict, reducing blood flow to these areas.

73

What is vasodilation?

Vasodilation means that the blood vessels are dilated to make them bigger.
When you start to exercise, chemical changes trigger signals from your nervous system.
These signals cause blood vessels that supply the active areas (the working muscles) to dilate, increasing blood flow to these areas. This means that these muscles receive more oxygen and nutrients.

74

What are the components of blood?

Red blood cells - Oxygen is diffused into the bloodstream from the alveoli in the lungs. The oxygen binds binds with the haemoglobin in red blood cells to be transported to working muscles for aerobic activity. Some of the carbon dioxide produced by the muscles is taken away by either red blood cells or plasma.

White blood cells - White blood cells help fight infection. They travel around the body in the plasma and fight any infections or diseases that may be there.

Plasma - Plasma transports the blood cells, platelets amn nutrients to the different parts of the body.

Platelets - Platelets help prevent bleeding as they can stick to each other and to the walls of the blood vessels. If a performer gets cut while playing, the platelets flowing in the plasma stick together and form a plug to prevent further blood loss.

75

What is the percentage gases in inhaled and exhaled air?

Inhaled air:
Nitrogen = 78%
Oxygen = 21%
Carbon dioxide = 0.04%

Exhaled air:
Nitrogen = 78%
Oxygen = 16%
Carbon dioxide = 4%

76

What is lung volume?

Lung volume refers to the capacity of the lungs. The greater the volume of the lungs, the more air they can hold.

77

What is tidal volume?

Tidal volume is the amount of air inspired and expired in a normal breath.

78

How does tidal volume change while resting and exercising?

Resting:
When our bodies are at rest, breathing is slower and shallower than when exercising.
Less demand for energy means:
Less air containing needs to be breathed in.
Less carbon dioxide needs to be breathed out.

Exercising:
During exercise you need to increase airflow into out of your lungs.
More oxygen needed means:
You need to get more oxygen into your lungs so it can diffuse into the bloodstream for additional energy production.
You need to breathe out the additional carbon dioxide produced during exercise.
Breathing more deeply means:
Inhale more oxygen.
Exhale more carbon dioxide.
To allow for this to happen tidal volume will increase.

79

What is vital capacity?

The maximum amount of air the lungs can expire (breathe out) after the maximum amount they can inspire (breath in).
Vital capacity is made up of:
Tidal volume.
Expiratory reserve volume - the maximum volume that can be exhaled.
Inspiratory reserve volume - the maximum volume that can be inhaled.

80

What are the lungs?

There are two lungs (left and right).
The lungs allow the movement of air in and out the body (ventilation).
Air enters the lungs during inspiration (the process of breathing in).
Air leaves the lungs during expiration (the process of breathing out).

81

What are bronchi and bronchioles?

The air travels to each of the lungs via the bronchi - the term for both the left and right bronchus that take air to each of the lungs.
The passages that the air travels down get smaller as the bronchi subdivide. The smaller airways from bronchi are called bronchioles.
Bronchioles branch out throughout the lungs and carry the air from the bronchi to the alveoli.

82

What are alveoli?

Structure:
Very thin air sacs.
Very thin walls.
Surrounded by capillaries.

They are attached to the branches of the bronchioles throughout the lungs.
At the alveoli the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs.

83

What is the diaphragm?

During inspiration the diaphragm contracts and flattens to make more space in the chest so the lungs can expand to pull in air.
During expiration the diaphragm relaxes and returns to a dome shape, making the chest cavity smaller. This helps to force the air out of the lungs.
Due to the demand for additional oxygen by the working muscles during exercise, the rate and depth of breathing my increase. This enables carbon dioxide to be removed faster.

84

How does gas exchange occur between alveoli and capillaries.

Alveoli to capillaries:
Alveoli - high pressure/concentration of oxygen.
Capillaries surrounding alveoli (from muscles) - low pressure/concentration of oxygen.
Movement of oxygen from high pressure to low through thin walls of capillaries and alveoli.
Capillaries gain oxygen from the alveoli and transport it around the body.

Capillaries to alveoli:
The reverse happens with the movement of carbon dioxide.
Capillaries surrounding alveoli (from muscles) - high pressure/concentration of CO2.
Alveoli - low pressure/concentration of CO2.
Movement of CO2 from high to low.
CO2 is moved out of the blood into the alveoli.

85

How does gas exchange vary with intensity of exercise?

During aerobic activity there is an increase in breathing rate and an increase in gas exchange to meet the demands of the working muscles for more oxygen.
After anaerobic activity there is an elevated breathing rate, allowing greater gas exchange to aid recovery.

86

What is energy production?

Aerobic exercise uses oxygen for energy production. (This is aerobic respiration, not to be confused with breathing).
Activities:
Long duration.
Moderate pace rather than intense pace.
One example is long-distance running.

Anaerobic exercise does not use oxygen in energy production.
Activities:
High intensity.
Very short duration.
One example is elite 100-metre sprinting or explosive activities, such as shot put.

87

What is the aerobic energy equation?

GLUCOSE + O2 --> CO2 + H2O + HEAT + ENERGY
You can use glucose and oxygen to release energy aerobically.
The process produces carbon dioxide, water and heat in addition to energy.

88

What are the energy sources?

Fats are an energy source for aerobic activity.
They:
Require oxygen to break down glucose.
Are slow to break down.
Once broken down give large quantities of energy for exercise.

Carbohydrates are an energy source for aerobic and anaerobic activity.
They:
Do not require oxygen to break down into glucose.
Do not give as much energy as fats.
Are quicker to break down and release more energy than fats.

89

What is lactic acid?

Lactic acid is produced as a by-product when carbohydrates are broken down without oxygen during anaerobic respiration.
GLUCOSE --> LACTIC ACID + ENERGY
Without oxygen, lactic acid will accumulate (build up) in the blood and muscle tissue, causing muscles to become tired and work less efficiently, causing a drop in performance.

90

What can anaerobic energy production lead to?

Muscle fatigue due to the increased acidity in the cells as a result of the reactions taking place to release the required energy.
Lactate accumulation in the muscle tissue and bloodstream due to lack of oxygen.

91

What happens to the cardiovascular system during exercise?

There's an increase in:
Heart rate (HR).
Stroke volume (SV).
Blood pressure.
Cardiac output (as HR x SV = cardiac output).
Vascular shunting.

92

What happens to the respiratory system during exercise?

There's an increase in:
Depth of breathing.
Rate of breathing.
Gas exchange
and therefore:
Tidal volume.
Oxgen deficit.