Flashcards in Topic 1 Deck (79):
What is natural population change?
Change in the number of people living in a place as a result of differences in births and deaths.
What is migration?
The movement of people to live in a different place. Migrations may be permanent or temporary.
What is a LIC and an example?
Countries which had a gross national income per capita of $1025 or less in 2015. This figure changes yearly.
What is a NIC and an example?
Countries which in recent years have greatly increased their manufacturing capacity.
What is rural to urban migration?
Migration from the countryside to towns and cities.
What is regional migration?
Movement from one region to another in the same country.
What is international migration?
Migration from one country to another.
What are economic migrants?
Move out of choice. Usually attracted by the prospect of a better job and living conditions.
What are refugees?
Move because they are forced away from a place where their lives are in danger.
What are asylum seekers?
Refugees in fear of persecution in their country of origin for reasons of political opinion, religion, ethnicity, race/nationality or membership of a particular group.
What is suburbanisation?
A trend for more people to live on the edges of towns and cities.
What is counter-urbanisation?
A movement of people and businesses from large towns and cities to rural areas.
Wha is re-urbanisation?
A trend of more people moving to live in or close to the centres of cities and large towns.
What is infill?
The reuse of derelict land in urban areas. Also known as “recycling land”.
What is urbanisation?
The physical and human growth of towns and cities.
What is green belt areas?
Area surrounding major cities intended to be kept as open space.
What is a garden town?
A residential community having landscaped gardens, parks and other open areas.
What is a brownfield site?
Land suitable for redevelopment. Usually in urban areas.
What is a greenfield site?
Land preciously unused for building. Usually in rural areas.
What are the advantages of developing brownfield sites?
Mainly areas of unsightly, disused or derelict land.
Existing buildings can be adapted to housing.
Reduces commuting distance.
Reduces urban expansion.
Utilities like water and power are already in place.
What are the disadvantages of developing brownfield sites?
Increases demand in existing public transport.
Increases cars on city roads.
Existing building usually have to be cleared.
What are the advantages of developing greenfield sites?
No existing buildings to clear away.
Building not constrained by limiting space.
Land unlikely to have been polluted by previous use.
What are the disadvantages of developing greenfield sites?
May change character of the area for existing residents.
Could reduce farmland.
Slow to get planning permission.
Potential damage to habitats.
Increases overall car use.
What is council tax?
A tax placed on each property that is payable to the local council.
What is a mortgage?
The repayment to a lender, like building society, of money borrowed to buy a property.
What is disposable income?
Money left after essential payments have been made.
What is a commute?
Daily travel to and from home to a place of employment.
What is socio-economic group?
A way of categorising people according to their employment.
What is telecommuting?
Working part of the week in an office and the rest at home linking with the office by computer.
What is sustainable?
Capable of being able to operate effectively now and in the future.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of telecommuting for the employer?
Office costs reduced.
Not disrupted by traffic problems.
Less control of staff.
Difficult linking team members.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of telecommuting for the employee?
Work in comfort of home.
Lower travel costs.
Difficult to separate family and home life.
Temptation not to work.
What are pull factors?
Perceptions of a place that attract people to it.
What is a commuter settlement?
A place that has a large proportion of commuters.
What are push factors?
Negative features of a place that influence people to leave it.
What are high-order goods?
Expensive items, bought infrequently.
What are low-order goods?
Household items, bought frequently.
What is catchment area?
The area around a shop/shopping centre from which it draws its customers.
What are the main types of shopping experiences?
CBD- In the middle of large urban areas.
District shopping centre- In centres of small towns and suburbs of cities.
Malls- Group of small stores under one roof.
Retail parks- Usually located out of town.
Corner shops- Usually on ends of terraced housing rows.
What is threshold population?
The number of shoppers required to keep a shop in business.
What is range?
The distance a consumer is willing to travel to buy a particular product.
What is direct employment?
Jobs created within a particular business.
What is indirect employment?
Jobs created outside a business but then depend on it for their existence.
What is inertia?
An inability to mov because of high cost of relocation.
What is accessibility?
The ease with which people can travel to a place.
What do national parks aim to do?
Conserve and enhance the natural beauty of the area.
Help the economic and social well-being of their communities.
Promote the understanding and enjoyment of the National Park by visitors.
What is a honeypot site?
A place that attracts huge numbers of visitors.
What is carrying capacity?
The number of visitors a place can cope with without suffering serious damage.
What disadvantages do visitors to honeypot sites cause?
Disturbance to animals.
Conflict over roaming rights.
What advantages do visitors to honeypot sites cause?
Farmers sell produce locally.
Increased education of visitors.
Tourists use local shops and facilities.
Visitors provide employment for local people.
What two main ways can we restore damaged footpaths?
Stone pitching- this involves digging large local stone into the ground to form solid footpaths.
Sub-soiling- this uses a digging machine to create a ditch. The sub-soil from the ditch produces solid, hard-wearing walking surface. A specialised grass-seed mix is then sown.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of stone pitching?
Hard wearing and low maintenance.
Traditional technique using natural materials.
Blends well into the surroundings.
Suitable on steep gradients.
Requires skilled craft people.
Stone is in short supply.
Can be uncomfortable to walk on.
Expensive at more than £100 per metre.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of sub-soiling?
Hard wearing and low maintenance.
No transport of materials is needed.
Blends very well into surroundings.
Comfortable to walk on.
Requires experienced and skilled workers.
Difficult access for digger
Can take several growing seasons to regrow.
Difficult to use on paths of over 15 degrees slope.
What is infrastructure?
The basic services needed by a society such as water supply, sewage disposal, transport and other communication.
What is the criteria for a global city?
What is globalisation?
The process by which places become more worldwide connected economically, socially, politically or culturally.
What are examples of business activity?
Headquarters of global services firms
Capital markets value
Number of international conferences
Value of goods through ports and airports.
What are examples of a human capital?
Size of its foreign-born population
Quality of universities
Number of international schools, international student population
Number of residents with college degrees
What are examples of information exchange?
Access to major TV news channels
Internet presence (number of search hits)
Number of international news bureaux
Lack of censorship
Broadband subscriber rate
What are examples of cultural experience?
Number of sporting events
Number of museums and performing arts venues
Number of restaurants
Number of international visitors
Other city relationships
What are examples of political engagement?
Number of embassies and consulates
Number of think tanks
Number of international organisations
Number of political conferences
What is gross national income [GNI] per capita?
The total income of a country divided by its population.
What is human development index [HDI]?
A United Nations figure obtained by combining GNI per capita and measures of health, education and equality.
What is aid?
Help given by richer societies to poorer ones.
What is poverty?
When a persons resources are not enough to meet their needs.
What are raw materials?
Unprocessed inputs to a manufacturing industry.
What are extensive industries?
Involved in mining or surface removal of minerals like gold, oil and iron ore.
What are labour intensive?
Industries in which a large proportion of the costs of production go to employing the workforce.
What is emerging markets?
Areas with large populations where there has been a great increase in earning.
What is a duty?
A tax that is paid by a company wishing to import its goods to a country or trading zone.
What is supply?
The amount of a product that is available for sale.
What is demand?
The amount of s product that is required by its buyers.
What is quota?
A limit on the quantity of goods allowed into a country from another country.
What is import duty?
A sum of money paid when an item is imported from one country to another. Also called a tariff.
What is subsidy?
Money paid to a country’s own industry to help it complete with other goods coming from outside that country.
What is bilateral aid?
Help from he government of one country to the government of another country.
What is multilateral aid?
Given by governments to large international NGOs who then decide how the aid should be distributed.
What is non-government aid?
Given by independent organisations, often charities, which collect donations to use to help countries and smaller groups.