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Flashcards in Topic 1 Deck (19):
1

Describe the structure of a water molecule hydrogen bonding

One oxygen atom
Two hydrogen atoms
The oxygen is slightly negative
Hydrogen is slightly positive
Bond forms between oxygen and hydrogen

2

List some features of an Artery

-Thick wall to cope with high blood pressure
-muscle can contract or relax to increase/decrease blood flow to an area
-elastic tissue allows the artery to stretch/recoil during systole/diastole
-smooth inner layer of endothelium maximising blood flow

3

Name some features of a vein

-A relatively thin wall as they don't have to cope with high blood pressure
-smooth endothelium
-valves to prevent back flow

4

List some features of Capillaries

-single cell thick to minimise the distance of diffusion, allows molecules to diffuse quickly in and out of blood
-lumen smaller than diameter of a red blood cell, means RBC have to squeeze through giving more time for diffusion

5

List the first 5 events leading to atherosclerosis

1.Damage to endothelium
2.causes inflammatory response
3.white blood cells go into artery wall
4.white blood cells accumulate cholesterol
5.this accumulation is called an atheroma

6

List the final 4 steps leading to atherosclerosis

6.calcium salts and fibrous tissue build up forming a plaque- this is atherosclerosis

7. Atherosclerosis narrows lumen artery wall and reduces elasticity

8.this results in a higher blood pressure needed to pump blood

9.the higher blood pressure means further damage to artery walls is likely- positive feedback

7

List the 5 steps of a blood clot

1. Platelets come into contact with muscle tissue or connective tissue
2. Platelets and damaged tissue release thromboplastin
3. Thromboplastin catalyses the conversion of prothrombin Ito thrombin
4. Thrombin catalyses the conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin
5.fibrin is insoluble in water and forms a mesh, trapping blood cells

8

List 3 uncontrollable factors that can lead to CVD

1.Age-getting older
2.Gender-benign male
3.Genetics-a family history of CVD

9

List 5 controllable factors that can lead to CVD

-smoking
-excessive alcohol consumption
-obesity
-lack of exercise
-high cholesterol levels in blood

10

Glycogen found in plants/animals?

Animals

11

Function of glycogen/amylose/amylopectin

Glucose/energy store

12

Glycogen/amylose/amylopectin made of which monomer

Glucose

13

Dose glycogen have side branches?

Yes- lots

14

Is amylose/ amylopectin found in plants or animals?

Plants

15

Amylose have any branches?

No

16

Amylopectin have side branches?

Yes- a few

17

Name the two polysaccharides that make up starch

Amylose and amylopectin

18

List 4 reasons polysaccharides are good energy stores

1) they are compact so lots of glucose can be stored in a small volume.
2)coiled, makes them more compact
3)insoluble in water so dose not affect water movement in/out of cell
4)are branched so can release glucose quickly

19

Describe the basic structure of a triglyceride

1 glycerol
3 fatty acid tails