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Flashcards in Topic 1 Deck (34):
1

Nucleus

Controls cells; it’s I activities and inside it are chromosomes which contain DNA

2

Cytoplasm

Contains watery jelly; it’s where most of the cells activities accur

3

Cell membrane

Controls what enters and leaves cell

4

Mitochondria

Aerobic respiration occurs

5

Ribosomes

Makes protein ( protein synthesis)

6

Cell wall

Supports and protects cell

7

Chloroplasts

Contains chlorophyll which traps energy from sun, used for photosynthesis

8

Large permanent vacuole

Stores cells sap helps keep cell rigid

9

Specialised cell

Have a specific function

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Specialised cell for digestion

Cells line the small intestine absorb food molecules produced by digestion.
Cells in the pancreas make enzymes needed to digest certain foods in the small intestine. The enzymes are protein so they have lots of ribosomes

11

Microvilli

Increase surface area, so more area for molecules to be absorbed faster

12

Specialised cells for reproduction

During sexual reproduction, two specialised cells(gametes) dues to create a cell that develops into an embryo. Human gamers are the egg cell and sperm cell.
Most human cell nuclei contain two copies of the 23 different types of chromosomes.

13

Diploid

Have two sets of chromosomes

14

Haploid

One copy of chromosomes

15

Egg cell

Haploid nucleus
Large store of nutrients in the cytoplasm, provides a source of energy for cell division and growth after fertilisation.
Jelly layer surrounding the cell membrane jelly layer hardens after the sperm and egg nucleus fuse.
Cell membrane hardens after fertilisation helps prevent a second sperm fertilising the egg

16

Sperm cell

Haploid nucleus
Acrosome containing enzymes, helps the cell burrow through the jelly layer surrounding the cell
Mitochondria release a lot of energy quickly for movement of the cell
Long tail moves side to side so the whole cell swims forward

17

Ciliates epithelial cell trachea/ oviduct

Ferilliastion occurs in the oviduct
Cilla are covered in cell membrane and contain strands of substance that contract and causes wavy movement. They either move the egg along or mucus
It lines the oviducts, it protects the egg cell as it moved through the oviducts.
Fine hairs like extensions to the cell membrane to sweep from side to side to move things across the cell surface
Moves the egg cell from the ovary towards the uterus

18

Small intestine cells

Diploid nucleus
Finger like extensions on the cell surface membrane it increases the surface are of the cell so substances are absorbed more quickly
Lines the small intestine where digested food substances are absorbed into the body

19

Bacteria

They are prokaryotic which means their cells don’t have a nucleus or chromosomes. Instead they have cytoplasm contains one large loop of chromosomal DNA this controls the cell
There are smaller loops of DNA called plasmids
Also don’t have mitochondria or chloroplast

20

Parts of bacteria

Hagellum for moving
Slime coat controls what enters and leaves

21

Enzymes

Break down food into subunits so they are small enough for the small intestine to absorb
Once the smaller molecules are absorbed into the body they are used to build larger molecules
Reactions can be sped up by a catalyse

22

Protein

Protease > amino acids

23

Starch

Analyse > glucose

24

Lipoids

Lipase > fatty acids

25

Amylase

Found in the saliva and small intestine
Reaction catalysed - breaking down starch to small sugars and maltose

26

Catalase

Found in most cells especially liver cells
Reaction catalysed - breaking down hydrogen peroxide made in cells reaction to water and oxygen

27

Starch synthase

Found in plants
Reaction catalysed - synthesis of starch from glucose

28

DNA polymerase

Found in nucleus
Reaction catalysed - synthesis of the DNA from its monomers

29

Active site

Is where the substrate of the enzymes fits at the start of a reaction
All enzymes have different active sites
So every enzyme can only work with specific substrates what fit the active site

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Process of active site

Two different substates molecules goes to the active site
Active site holds them tightly and forms a bond between them
Molecule is slightly different shapes so it no longer fits and is released

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What changes the size of active site

The pH and temperature
This means it is denatured

32

Diffusion

From high concentration to low concentration

33

Osmosis

Movement of water from high to low concentration through a semi permeable membrane

34

Active transport

Cells travel against the concentration gradient of transport molecules that are too big to diffuse though a cell membrane