Flashcards in Topic 1 Deck (17):
Timeline of drug sourcing
1) Morphine was isolated in 1805 = first drug to be purified from a natural product, still derived from opium poppies
2) Chloral hydrate discovered in 1832 = not used as a drug until 1869, first synthetic drug
3) Aspirin discovered in 1897 = semisynthetic (modified version of natural product), first blockbuster drug
4) Recombinant human insulin produced in 1978 = first drug produces from genetically engineered bacteria, diabetics had been using insulin from pigs and cows
When was the fact that herbal extracts contain active compounds considered
18th century (this coincided with the development of chemical methods that allowed the purification and identification of the constituents of plant extracts).
What lead to the rise of experimental pharmacology
During the 1800s there was a growing trend in the West of deliberate testing of the individual compounds purified from plant and animal extracts
What did the development of experimental methods allow
The development of experimental methods made it possible to evaluate these compounds by studying and measuring their effects on living organisms
Chemical synthesis of drugs
purification and identification of the constituents of the plants and animal extracts
he active compounds in plants and other natural sources are categorised how
on the basis of their chemical properties
The two types of chemicals that are commonly encountered in natural sources are
alkaloids and glycosides
nitrogen containing alkaline compounds, usually bitter tasting and include drugs such as morphine, cocaine, nicotine and caffeine
compounds that react with acids to form salts
a type of carbohydrate that is metabolised to sugar and various active substances and include the drug digoxin, obtained from Foxglove and used to treat heart failure.
Other types of chemicals in natural sources
hydrocarbons (e.g. castor oil), steroids (such as oestrogen compounds) and oils (such as menthol)
organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen
When purified from a natural source do the active constituents generally retain their pharmacological activity?
yes, when purified from a natural source the active constituents generally retain their pharmacological activity.
Why is it possible to manufacture drugs directly without having to rely on the natural source
With the identification of the chemical structures of many drugs
What does chemical modifications of the original natural compound do
yields drugs with increased potency, specificity and selectivity making it possible to improve the beneficial effects and reducing side effects.