Topic 1: basic concepts of pathophysiology Flashcards Preview

Foundations of Pathophysiology > Topic 1: basic concepts of pathophysiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Topic 1: basic concepts of pathophysiology Deck (29):
1

signs

something that can be objectively measured or observed by an observer

2

symptoms

subjective complaint noted by the patient

3

complication

unfavorable evolution or consequence

4

risk factor

conditions suspected to contributing to the development of a disease

5

predisposing factor

inclination or tendency to develop a disease

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acute

relatively sever, but self-limiting

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chronic

continuous, long term

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prevalence

measure of existing disease in a population at a given time

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incidence

number of new cases that arise in a population at a given time

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idiopathic

arising spontaneously from an unknown cause

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atrophy

wasting in size, often accompanied by a decrease in function

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dysplasia

alteration in size/shape/organisation of adult cells

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aetiology

study of the cause/s of disease

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hyperplasia

abnormal multiplication or increase in the number of normal cells or body part

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metaplasia

change in type of adult cells to a form that is not normal for that tissue

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hypertrophy

enlargement or overgrowth of an organism due to an increase in size of cells

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insidious

gradual and subtle onset

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pathogenesis

how the disease process evolves

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epidemiology

study of patterns, causes and effects of health and disease conditions

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iatriogenic

induced inadvertently through activity of physicians

21

What is diabetes?

abnormally high blood glucose levels resulting in various complications such as blindness, amputation, tingling, stroke, increased blood pressure, heart attacks, kidney failure

22

What is hypertension?

abnormally high pressure inside arteries which may cause hardened arteries, cholesterol build-up, kidney failure, stroke

23

What is asthma?

narrowing and swelling of airways due to excessive secretions of mucous

24

What is arthritis?

inflammation and degeneration of cartilage surrounding joints, resulting in pain during movement

25

What are some signs and symptoms if diabetes?

dehydration, extreme thirst, unexplained weight loss, vision changes, extreme fatigue

26

Risk factors of type 2 diabetes

family history, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, obesity, race, ethnicity

27

How does co-existing high blood pressure aggravate renal impairment in a diabetic patient?

damage of blood vessels which may result in the nephrons not receiving enough oxygen to function, there is also decreased filtration and decreased rate

28

How does hypertension affect the heart?

A restriction in blood flow can damage the heart. The heart muscle thickens, making it difficult to pump blood through narrow arteries. In severe situations, blood is cut off to the heart, resulting in a heart attack.

29

How does hypertension affect the brain?

Blocked vessels in the brain can cause a stroke, which can result in permanent brain damage. Ruptured arteries can result in bleeding and can cause loss of consciousness, slurred speech or paralysis.