Topic 1 - Differentiation & Stem Cells Flashcards Preview

Higher Human Biology Unit 1 > Topic 1 - Differentiation & Stem Cells > Flashcards

Flashcards in Topic 1 - Differentiation & Stem Cells Deck (21):
1

Somatic Cells

Non-sex cells

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How do somatic cells divide?

Mitosis

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What does dividing somatic cells form?

More somatic cells

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Differentiation

The process which results in cells becoming specialised

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Specialised

They have their own specific structure and function

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What happens once a cell becomes differentiated?

It only expresses the genes that produce characteristics for that type of cell

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What type of body tissue types do somatic cells differentiate to form?

Epithelial and Connective

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Epithelial Tissue

The cells that cover the body surface and line body cavities (e.g bladder, windpipe etc)

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Connective Tissue

This is bone blood cartilage, muscle and nerve cells

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The two types of stem cells

Embryonic and Tissue (adult) stem cells

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Stem Cells

Unspecialised somatic cells that can divide to make copies of themselves and/or differentiate into specialised cells

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Tissue (adult) stem cells are multipotent or pluripotent?

Multipotent

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What are tissue (adult) stem cells involved in?

Growth, Repair and renewal of the cells found in that tissue

14

Multipotent

They can make all of the cell types found in a particular tissue type

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What does tissue (adult) stem cells in bone marrow develop into?

Red blood cells, platelets and various types of phagocytes and lymphocytes

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Pluripotent

The cells of the early embryo can make all of the differentiated cell types of the body

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What stem cell is pluripotent?

Embryonic

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What forms when germline cells are divided by Mitosis?

More germline cells

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What's produced when germline cells are divided by meiosis?

Haploid gametes

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What is produced when cancer cells divide excessively?

A mass of abnormal cells (a tumour)

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What can happen if a cancer cell fails to attach to each other?

It can spread through the body to form secondary tumours