Topic 1 Mental Health Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 1 Mental Health Deck (47):
1

Background/Historical views

Unusual patterns of thinking and behaviour were accounted for in many different ways such as witchcraft and intense religious experiences.
Eg; Trepanning was a surgical procedure used to treat patients who suffered from migraines and seizures. It involved piercing a hole in the skull from which ‘evil spirits’ were supposedly released.

2

Statistical infrequency

Behaviour is classed as abnormal if it’s rare or statistically unusual.
Eg; an individual who has an IQ Below or above the average level of IQ may be classed as abnormal.

3

Deviating from social norms

Behaviour which departs from what one society/culture defines as normal. Judged based of the context in which it occurs. Behaviour may be incomprehensible to others

4

Maladaptiveness

If an individual is unable to cope with the demands of everyday life. Eg; self care, hold down a job, interact meaningfully with others.

5

Medical model

Tries to determine appropriate treatments by establishing categories of symptoms that forms a disorder.

6

DSM

Diagnosis and statistical model 5th edition.
Classify abnormal behaviour and diagnose patients.
Created by APA in 1952.

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Aim of Rosenhans study?

To test the reliability and validity of the DSM.
To observe and report experience of being a patient at a mental hospital.

8

Study 1 of rosenhans study

Field experiment
Participant observation and self report

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Sample of rosenhan

8 pseudo patients-5 men and 3 women including rosenhan.
12 hospitals across 5 states USA.
All gave false names and occupation.
Rosenhans involvement was known to the chief psychologist and hospital administrator.

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Procedure of rosenhan

Appointment- reported they’ve been hearing unfamiliar voices of the same sex (eg; ‘empty’ &’thud’)
-were told to get out by their own means.
-details of their life, experiences &relationship were given truthfully.

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IV of Rosenhans study

12 hospitals

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DV of Rosenhans study

-Diagnosis received
-admission of patients
-reports of experiences

13

What was the question asked to staff in 4 hospitals?

-“when am I likely to be discharged?”
-responses were compared to control group of Stanford uni.

14

Results of Rosenhans study

-staff failed to recognise sanity despite not showing any symptoms of insanity.
-Discharged with a diagnosis of “schizophrenia in remission”-carried a label beyond the hospital.

15

Length of stay in the hospital?

7-52 days

16

Did genuine patients suspected pseudo patients?

Yes -saying that they were testing the hospital, but non of the staff raised concerns

17

Examples of type 1 errors(healthy person diagnosed ill)?

1)When pseudo patients were recording behaviour- it was described as ‘engaging in writing behaviour’.
2)when they waited at the cafeteria before lunch- it was described as demonstrating the “oral acquisitive” nature of their condition.

18

What’s powerlessness?

Loss of authority/control an individual has to make their own legal or personal decision.

19

Examples of powerlessness

-Staff entered patients’ rooms without warning.
-Toilets had no doors-no privacy.

20

What’s Depersonalisation?

Loss of the sense of personhood, patients were not treated as individuals by staff.

21

Examples of depersonalisation

-Staff engaged in physical abuse of patients in presence of other patients.
-Patients were disposed of their medication-they weren’t challenged as long as they remained cooperative.

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Causes of Powerlessness and depersonalisation

1)Staffs attitude (feared patients and also wanting to help them)-opposing feelings could have led them to avoid interaction with patients.
2)Average daily contact with doctor per patient was only 6.8mins-Docs serve as a role model to other staff-could be a contributing factor.

23

Study 2

Judgement were made on 193 patients who were admitted

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Sample Study 2

Psychiatrist staff at one research and teaching hospital who had been briefed on the findings of the main study

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Procedure study 2

-Staff informed during 3months period,1 or more pseudo patient would attempt to gain admission.
-Staff asked to rate (1-pseudopatient & 10-genuine ill patient).

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Results study 2

-At least 1 member of staff rated 41 to be pseudo patients with high confidence.
-23 suspected by at least 1 psychiatrist.
-19 suspected by psychiatrist & one other staff.

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Results study 2

1)Evidence for lack of reliability in diagnosis-no paeudopatients presented themselves.
2)type 2 error-identifying mentally ill patients as healthy

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Conclusion study 2

1)psychiatrist failed to reliably identify pseudo patients &detect insanity.
2)Within the ‘insane’ environment,behaviour is perceived in a distorted manner which can maintain a diagnostic label.

29

What’s an Affective disorder ?

Illnesses affecting mood-can range from mild to severe such as sadness and rage.
Eg; Depression

30

Main Symptoms of Depression

-Depressed mood nearly everyday
-Loss of interest/pleasure in all or most activities

31

Other symptoms of depression

-weight loss
-frequent insomnia or hypersomnia(excessive sleeping)
-daily fatigue
-suicidal ideation
-loss on concentration

32

How long must symptoms occur to be part of a diagnosis?

Symptoms present everyday for at least 2 consecutive weeks

33

Facts of Depression

-Depressive episode begin at puberty.
-Females experience up to 3 times higher rate than male.

34

What’s a psychotic disorder?

Refers to the experience of the disorder as a loss of contact with reality.

35

What’s Schizophrenia?

A long term mental health condition that affects people’s thoughts,emotions and behaviour.

36

Main symptoms of schizophrenia

-Delusions
-Hallucinations
-Disorganised speech

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Other symptoms of schizophrenia?

-Highly disorganised or catatonic behaviours
-Negative symptoms such as reduced expression of emotions

38

What’s a ‘positive’ symptom?

The addition of new behaviours.
Eg;
hallucinations-hearing,sewing& feeling things that don’t exist.

Delusions-beliefs they may have that aren’t based on reality.

39

When is diagnosis given?

-symptoms occurs for a period of 1 month.
-if symptoms are better explained by underlying medical issues
-must have a negative effect on the normal functioning of a person.

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Facts of schizophrenia

-Males diagnosed in their late teens, women around the age of 25.
-men more likely to experience hospitalisation

41

What’s an anxiety disorder?

-involves feelings & behaviours characterised by excessive and persistent fear or anxiety.
Eg; specific phobias

42

What’s the difference between fear and anxiety?

-Fear is an emotional response to a real(or perceived) threat.
-Anxiety is the expectation of that threat.

43

What’s a common phobic stimuli ?

-Animals
-Natural environment(height/water)
-Situation(travelling in a lift/plane)
-Injury(blood/injection)

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Unusual phobias

-Pteronophobia- fear of feathers or tickled by them.
-Spectrophobia- fear of mirrors or looking at your own reflection.

45

Symptoms of specific phobia

-immediate feat&anxiety
-it’s deliberately avoided
-fear&anxiety caused is disproportionate to actual danger it passes.
-phobic distress is persistent(6 months+)
-causes significant distress& impairment in areas of functioning such as social life or works

46

What’s a phobia?

An intense, severe and irrational fear that produces a physiological response such as sweating, shaking & increased respiratory rate.

47

Facts of phobias

-75% of people with specific phobias fear more than one object.
-more likely to occur in adolescents and females.
-Animal and natural phobias more common in females