Flashcards in Topic 1 Mental Health Deck (47):
Unusual patterns of thinking and behaviour were accounted for in many different ways such as witchcraft and intense religious experiences.
Eg; Trepanning was a surgical procedure used to treat patients who suffered from migraines and seizures. It involved piercing a hole in the skull from which ‘evil spirits’ were supposedly released.
Behaviour is classed as abnormal if it’s rare or statistically unusual.
Eg; an individual who has an IQ Below or above the average level of IQ may be classed as abnormal.
Deviating from social norms
Behaviour which departs from what one society/culture defines as normal. Judged based of the context in which it occurs. Behaviour may be incomprehensible to others
If an individual is unable to cope with the demands of everyday life. Eg; self care, hold down a job, interact meaningfully with others.
Tries to determine appropriate treatments by establishing categories of symptoms that forms a disorder.
Diagnosis and statistical model 5th edition.
Classify abnormal behaviour and diagnose patients.
Created by APA in 1952.
Aim of Rosenhans study?
To test the reliability and validity of the DSM.
To observe and report experience of being a patient at a mental hospital.
Study 1 of rosenhans study
Participant observation and self report
Sample of rosenhan
8 pseudo patients-5 men and 3 women including rosenhan.
12 hospitals across 5 states USA.
All gave false names and occupation.
Rosenhans involvement was known to the chief psychologist and hospital administrator.
Procedure of rosenhan
Appointment- reported they’ve been hearing unfamiliar voices of the same sex (eg; ‘empty’ &’thud’)
-were told to get out by their own means.
-details of their life, experiences &relationship were given truthfully.
IV of Rosenhans study
DV of Rosenhans study
-admission of patients
-reports of experiences
What was the question asked to staff in 4 hospitals?
-“when am I likely to be discharged?”
-responses were compared to control group of Stanford uni.
Results of Rosenhans study
-staff failed to recognise sanity despite not showing any symptoms of insanity.
-Discharged with a diagnosis of “schizophrenia in remission”-carried a label beyond the hospital.
Length of stay in the hospital?
Did genuine patients suspected pseudo patients?
Yes -saying that they were testing the hospital, but non of the staff raised concerns
Examples of type 1 errors(healthy person diagnosed ill)?
1)When pseudo patients were recording behaviour- it was described as ‘engaging in writing behaviour’.
2)when they waited at the cafeteria before lunch- it was described as demonstrating the “oral acquisitive” nature of their condition.
Loss of authority/control an individual has to make their own legal or personal decision.
Examples of powerlessness
-Staff entered patients’ rooms without warning.
-Toilets had no doors-no privacy.
Loss of the sense of personhood, patients were not treated as individuals by staff.
Examples of depersonalisation
-Staff engaged in physical abuse of patients in presence of other patients.
-Patients were disposed of their medication-they weren’t challenged as long as they remained cooperative.
Causes of Powerlessness and depersonalisation
1)Staffs attitude (feared patients and also wanting to help them)-opposing feelings could have led them to avoid interaction with patients.
2)Average daily contact with doctor per patient was only 6.8mins-Docs serve as a role model to other staff-could be a contributing factor.
Judgement were made on 193 patients who were admitted
Sample Study 2
Psychiatrist staff at one research and teaching hospital who had been briefed on the findings of the main study
Procedure study 2
-Staff informed during 3months period,1 or more pseudo patient would attempt to gain admission.
-Staff asked to rate (1-pseudopatient & 10-genuine ill patient).
Results study 2
-At least 1 member of staff rated 41 to be pseudo patients with high confidence.
-23 suspected by at least 1 psychiatrist.
-19 suspected by psychiatrist & one other staff.
Results study 2
1)Evidence for lack of reliability in diagnosis-no paeudopatients presented themselves.
2)type 2 error-identifying mentally ill patients as healthy
Conclusion study 2
1)psychiatrist failed to reliably identify pseudo patients &detect insanity.
2)Within the ‘insane’ environment,behaviour is perceived in a distorted manner which can maintain a diagnostic label.
What’s an Affective disorder ?
Illnesses affecting mood-can range from mild to severe such as sadness and rage.
Main Symptoms of Depression
-Depressed mood nearly everyday
-Loss of interest/pleasure in all or most activities
Other symptoms of depression
-frequent insomnia or hypersomnia(excessive sleeping)
-loss on concentration
How long must symptoms occur to be part of a diagnosis?
Symptoms present everyday for at least 2 consecutive weeks
Facts of Depression
-Depressive episode begin at puberty.
-Females experience up to 3 times higher rate than male.
What’s a psychotic disorder?
Refers to the experience of the disorder as a loss of contact with reality.
A long term mental health condition that affects people’s thoughts,emotions and behaviour.
Main symptoms of schizophrenia
Other symptoms of schizophrenia?
-Highly disorganised or catatonic behaviours
-Negative symptoms such as reduced expression of emotions
What’s a ‘positive’ symptom?
The addition of new behaviours.
hallucinations-hearing,sewing& feeling things that don’t exist.
Delusions-beliefs they may have that aren’t based on reality.
When is diagnosis given?
-symptoms occurs for a period of 1 month.
-if symptoms are better explained by underlying medical issues
-must have a negative effect on the normal functioning of a person.
Facts of schizophrenia
-Males diagnosed in their late teens, women around the age of 25.
-men more likely to experience hospitalisation
What’s an anxiety disorder?
-involves feelings & behaviours characterised by excessive and persistent fear or anxiety.
Eg; specific phobias
What’s the difference between fear and anxiety?
-Fear is an emotional response to a real(or perceived) threat.
-Anxiety is the expectation of that threat.
What’s a common phobic stimuli ?
-Situation(travelling in a lift/plane)
-Pteronophobia- fear of feathers or tickled by them.
-Spectrophobia- fear of mirrors or looking at your own reflection.
Symptoms of specific phobia
-it’s deliberately avoided
-fear&anxiety caused is disproportionate to actual danger it passes.
-phobic distress is persistent(6 months+)
-causes significant distress& impairment in areas of functioning such as social life or works
What’s a phobia?
An intense, severe and irrational fear that produces a physiological response such as sweating, shaking & increased respiratory rate.