Topic 12 - Cardiovascular Sytem (last 3 pages) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 12 - Cardiovascular Sytem (last 3 pages) Deck (94):
1

Anatomy of blood vessels

List the general structure of blood vessels (except capillaries) 

4 parts:

  1. tunica externa
  2. tunica media
  3. tunica intima/interna
  4. lumen

2

Anatomy of blood vessels

tunica externa

CT

3

Anatomy of blood vessels

Tunica media

  • smooth muscle
  • elastic fibers (CT)

4

Anatomy of blood vessels

Tunica intima/interna

endothelium (simple squamous epithelium)

5

Anatomy of blood vessels

Lumen

  • contains blood 
  • not a layer

 

6

Name the 5 types of blood vessels

(from heart and back to heart)

  1. arteries
  2. arterioles
  3. capillaries
  4. venules
  5. veins

7

Anatomy of blood vessels

starts at the:

heart

8

Anatomy of blood vessels

from the heart to 

elastic arteries

9

Anatomy of blood vessels

from elastic arteries to

muscular arteries

10

Anatomy of blood vessels

from muscular arteries to

arterioles

11

from arterioles to 

capillaries

12

Anatomy of blood vessels

from capillaries to

venules

13

Anatomy of blood vessels

from venules to

veins

14

Anatomy of blood vessels

from veins to

heart

15

Anatomy of blood vessels

Arteries

  • name the function
  • how many types

  • carries blood away from heart (does not refer to oxy or deoxy)
  • 2 types

16

Anatomy of blood vessels

what are the 2 types of arteries?

  1. elastic arteries
  2. muscular arteries

17

Anatomy of blood vessels:

Arteries: elastic arteries

 

  • elastic CT in all 3 layers
  • largest arteries (near heart)
  • e.g. aorta

18

Anatomy of blood vessels

arteries: muscular arteries

  • a LOT of smooth muscle
  • most arteries
  • e.g. coronary arteries

19

aorta refers to 

a) elastic arteries

b) muscular arteries

elastic arteries

20

coronary artery refers to

a) elastic arteries

b) muscular arteries

muscular arteries

21

largest arteries (near heart) refers to

a) elastic arteries

b) muscular arteries

elastic arteries

22

most arteries refers to

a) elastic arteries

b) muscular arteries

muscular arteries

23

a LOT of smooth muscle refers to

a) elastic arteries

b) muscular arteries

muscular arteries

24

anatomy of blood vessels: blood vessel types

arterioles

  • _____ arteries
  • what does it regulate?

  • little arteries
  • regulates blood flow + blood pressure

25

anatomy of blood vessels: blood vessel types

capillaries

  • only contains what layer + ___________

capillaries only have tunica intima - endothelium (one cell layer) + basement membrane

26

anatomy of blood vessels: blood vessel types

capillaries 

  • allows what?
  • gaps allow?
  • capillaries?

  • allows exchange of gases + nutrients
  • gaps allow limited fluid + solutes toleak out = interstitial fluid (ISF)
  • capillaries unite to form venules

27

anatomy of blood vessels: blood vessel types

venules

  • intima, thin media, thin externa

28

anatomy of blood vessels: blood vessel types

veins

  • large lumen
  • valves prevent backflow of blood
  • thin media - less smooth muscle
    •  can collapse

29

anatomy of blood vessels: blood vessel types

veins:

valves prevent what?

backflow of blood

30

anatomy of blood vessels: blood vessel types

veins 

  • thin media - less smooth muscle:
    • can do what?

 

can collapse

31

large lumen refers to:

a) arterioles

b) capillaries

c) venules

d) veins

veins

32

intima, thin media, thin externa refers to 

a) arterioles

b) capillaries

c) venules

d) veins

 

venules

33

ONLY tunica intima - endothelium (one cell layer) + basement membrane

a) arterioles

b) capillaries

c) venules

d) veins

capillaries

34

allow exchange of gases + nutrients refers to:

a) arterioles

b) capillaries

c) venules

d) veins

capillaries

35

gaps allow limited fluid + solutes to leak out = ISF refers to

a) arterioles

b) capillaries

c) venules

d) veins

capillaries

36

little arteries refers to

a) arterioles

b) capillaries

c) venules

d) veins

arterioles

37

regulates blood flow + blood pressure refers to

a) arterioles

b) capillaries

c) venules

d) veins

arterioles

38

Blood (CT)

characteristics (4)

  • viscosity?
  • temperature?
  • pH?
  • Litres

  1. higher viscosity than H2O
  2. 37ºC
  3. pH 7.35 - 7.45
  4. 4-6L in an adult

39

Blood CT

Composition Overview:

  1. plasma (matrix)
  2. formed elements

40

Blood CT: Composition Overview:

Plasma (matrix)

fluid portion with solutes

41

Blood CT: Composition Overview:

Formed elements

cellular portion

42

blood (CT): composition detail

Plasma (matrix) = ?

blood minus formed elements

43

blood (CT)

plasma is composed of:

  • H2O - 90%
  • Proteins - 8%
  • Other solutes - 2%

44

plasma is composed of proteins - 8%

1.

2.

3.

 

  1. albumin 
  2. fibrinogen
  3. globulin

45

plasma is composed of proteins - 8%

albumin

control tissue water balance

46

plasma is composed of proteins - 8%

fibrinogen

clot formation

47

plasma is composed of proteins - 8%

globulin

antibodies

48

control tissue water balance refers to

a) albumin

b) fibrinogen

c) globulin

albumin

49

plasma is composed of 

  • H2O - 90%
  • Proteins - 8%
  • Other solutes - 2%

Name the other solutes

  1. nutrients
  2. hormones
  3. wastes
  4. electrolytes
  5. gases

50

Blood (CT): Composition Detail:

Formed elements

Name the 3 types of formed elements:

  1. RBC - erythrocytes
  2. WBC - leukocytes
  3. Platelets

51

Blood

Formed Elements: RBC - Erythrocytes

  • what = % of blood volume that is RBC (45%)
  • what is the shape
  • what happens when mature?
  • life span
  • destroyed where?

  • hematocrit
  • biconcave disc shape
  • anucleate when mature
  • lifespan - 120 days
  • destroyed in the liver & spleen

52

Formed elements: RBC - Erythrocytes

Hematocrit = ?

% of blood volume that is RBC (45%)

53

what is the shape of RBC - erythrocytes?

biconcave disc shape

54

anucleate when mature

erythrocytes

55

life span of RBC - Erythrocytes

120 days

56

destroyed in the liver and spleen

RBC - Erythrocytes

57

What do RBC/Erythrocytes contain?

  • Hemoglobin (pigment protein)

58

Hemoglobin

Heme = ?

 

  • red pigment
  • contains iron (Fe)
  • attaches and transports O2

 

59

Formed elements: RBC/Erythrocytes

Hemoglobin

Globin =

  • protein
  • attaches and transports CO2

60

heme is further broken down to _______

bilirubin

61

globin to _______

amino acids

62

Formed Elements

WBC - Leukocytes

  • nucleated or uninucleated?
  • life span
  • defend what
  • how many types?

  • nucleated
  • life span varies - days to years
  • defend against disease
  • 2 types

63

what is the life span of leukocytes?

days to years

64

are leukocytes nucleated or uninucleated?

nucleated

65

this type of formed element defends against disease

WBC - leukocytes

66

Formed element: WBC - Leukocytes

what are the 2 types of leukocytes

  1. Granulocytes
  2. Agranulocytes

67

Formed Elements: WBC - Leukocytes

Granulocytes 

include:

list percentage of each

  • neutrophils (60%)
  • eosinophils (3%)
  • basophils (1%)

68

Formed Elements: WBC - Leukocytes

Granulocytes: Neutrophils (60%)

  • all phagocytic (engulf + digest invaders)
  • kill bacteria

69

Formed Elements: WBC - Leukocytes

Granulocytes: Eosinophils (3%)

 

attack parasites (e.g. worms)

70

Formed Elements: WBC - Leukocytes

Granulocytes: Basophils (1%)

release histamine and hepraine

histamine = increase inflammation

heparin = decrease local clotting

71

histamine

increase inflammation

72

heparin

decrease local clotting

73

all phagocytic (engulf + digest invaders)

a) neutrophils

b) eosinophils

c) basophils

neutrophils

74

release histamine and heparine

a) neutrophils

b) eosinophils

c) basophils

basophils

75

kill bacteria

a) neutrophils

b) eosinophils

c) basophils

neutrophils

76

attack parasites (e.g. worms)

a) neutrophils

b) eosinophils

c) basophils

eosinophils

77

Formed elements: WBC - Leukocytes

Agranulocytes

include:

list the percentage

  • lymphocytes (35%)
  • monocytes (5%)

78

Formed elements: WBC - Leukocytes

Agranulocytes

include: lymphocytes (35%)

  • how many types?
  • name the types

  • 2 types
    • T lymphocytes
    • B lymphocytes

79

Formed elements: WBC - Leukocytes

Agranulocytes 

include lymphocytes:

  1. T lymphocytes
    • ​​kill what and how?
  2. B lymphocytes

kill infected/diseased cells directly

80

Formed elements: WBC - Leukocytes

Agranulocytes 

include lymphocytes:

  1. T lymphocytes
  2. B lymphocytes
  • become what?  which produce? 

become plasma cells and produce antibodies (globulin)

81

Formed elements: WBC - Leukocytes

Agranulocytes : Monocytes (5%)

  • enters where to become what?

enter tissue + enlarge to become macrophages

(phagocytic = "big eaters")

82

immunity refers to 

a) granulocytes

b) neutrophils

c) monocytes

d) lymphocytes

e) agranulocytes

lymphocytes 

technically lymphocytes are part of agranulocytes as well

83

which formed element enter tissue + enlarge to become macrophages 

a) T lymphocytes

b) Granulocytes

c) Monocytes

d) B lymphocytes

monocytes

84

name all the possible Leukocytes

even the subtypes

  • Granulocytes
    • neutrophils
    • eosinophils
    • basophils
  • Agranulocytes
    • lymphocytes
      • T lymphocytes
      • B lymphocytes
    • Monocytes

85

formed elements

platelets

  • fragments...
  • involved in....
  • life span

  • fragments of cells called megakaryocytes
  • involved in clotting
  • life span = 2-10 days

86

megakaryocytes

fragments of cells

87

involved in clotting

a) T lymphocytes

b) B lymphocytes

c) Neutrophils

d) Platelets

e) Basophils

platelets

88

formation of blood cells

Hemopoiesis/Hematopoiesis

89

Hemopoiesis/Hematopoiesis

  • all blood cells arise...

  • all blood cells arise indirectly from hemocytoblast cells (=stem cells) in red bone marrow

90

hemocytoblast cells = 

stem cells

91

all blood cells arise indirectly or directly from hemocytoblast cells in red bone marrow

 

indirectly

92

red marrow in adult:

  • ?
  • ?
  • ?

  • axial skeleton
  • pelvic + pectoral girdles
  • proximal ends of humerus + femur

93

life span of platelets?

2 - 10 days

94

platelets are fragments of cells called _______

megakaryocytes