Topic 16: Circulatory and Respiratory Systems Flashcards Preview

BIOL 1030 > Topic 16: Circulatory and Respiratory Systems > Flashcards

Flashcards in Topic 16: Circulatory and Respiratory Systems Deck (52):
1

Lymphatic system

open accessory in closed systems

2

blood plasma

consists of metabolites, wastes, and hormones

3

Ions in blood plasma

Na, Cl, bicarbonate

4

Proteins in blood plasma

Albumin, globulin, fibrinogen, antibodies

5

Globulins

carry lipids and steroid hormones

6

Leukocytes

(how are they different from red blood cells)

larger than red blood cells, have nucleus

7

The granular leukocytes are

neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils

8

Cells for immune defense

Neutrophils

9

Cells for parasite defense

Eosinophils

10

Nongranular leukocytes are

monocytes, lymphocytes

11

precursor to macrophage

Monocyte

12

break off bits of cytoplasm to form platelets and plug a wound; plug reinforced by fibrin

Megakaryocytes

13

Layers of blood vessels from outer to inner

endothelium, elastic fibers, smooth muscle, connective tissue

14

Fish circulation has how many loops

single loop

15

Amphibian circulation has how many chambers in the heart

3-chambered heart

16

What side of circulatory system has more pressure

Left side has more pressure

17

Order of blood flow

Body blood > right atrium > right ventricle > lungs > left atrium > left ventricle > body

18

(pacemaker) starts impulse at atria and sends impulse to AV node

SA node

19

shunts impulse to apex of heart

AV node

20

modified cardiac muscle cells that resemble neurons

provide almost simultaneous contraction of left and right ventricles

Purkinje fibers

21

Functions of shunted impulses

slows process so ventricles pump after atria;

squeezes heart from bottom up

22

Transporting systems for respiration

hemoglobin, red blood cells, blood plasma

23

Fick’s Law of Diffusion

Rate of diffusion is proportional to surface area and partial pressure difference

Rate of diffusion is inversely proportional to travel distance

24

Efficient air exchange mechanics maximize ____________________

maximize partial pressure difference

25

Structure of _____ consists of epithelial tissues coated with capillaries

gills

26

Flow that maximizes oxygenation in gills

Countercurrent flow of blood to water

27

Characteristics of amphibian alveoli

large terminal air sacs

surface coated in surfactant that stabilizes

surfactant in lungs composed of lipid and protein

28

how air is forced into lungs of amphibians and bony fish (gills)

Positive pressure breathing

29

How amniotes breathe

lungs with alveoli

30

alveoli in birds

Parabronchi

31

negative pressure in chest due to increasing volume of lungs (more efficient than positive pressure)

requires lungs connected to chest wall

Thoracic breathing

32

Organ derived from gill arches

trachea

33

Inhalation steps

contract exterinal rib intercostals and diaphragm

lift ribs and expands chest cavity

34

Exhalation steps

elastic recoil

relaxing muscles snap ribs and chest cavity back in place, forcing air out

35

Number of alveoli humans have

300 alveoli

36

Surface area for gas exchange in humans

80 m2 of surface area, 42x body surface

37

How birds breathe

unidirectional air flow with no residual volume like mammals

38

How partial pressure difference increased in birds

only fresh oxygen diffuses across surfaces

39

Steps in two-cycle pump

Inhalation 1– air flows through trachea into (nondiffusing) posterior air sacs

Exhalation 1– air flows into lung

Inhalation 2 – air flows from lung to anterior air sacs

Exhalation 2 – air flows out the trachea

40

less efficient than countercurrent flow, more efficient than other amniotes

flow of air and flood perpendicular

Cross-current flow

41

synthesized by erythrocytes

each molecule can bind 4 O2 molecules

Hemoglobin

42

pO2 in lungs

higher so more oxygen will dissolve and combine with hemoglobin

43

pO2 in tissues

lower so hemoglobin will give up oxygen

44

lowers blood pH at tissues

weakens hemoglobin’s affinity for oxygen

CO2

45

CO2 leads to extra unloading of O2

Bohr Effect

46

CO2 loading at tissues

red blood cells carry CO2 to the lungs in the form of bicarbonate ions

Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes formation of carbonic acid, making bicarbonate ions and H+

47

% CO2 dissolved in plasma

8% CO2 dissolved in plasma

48

% CO2 bond to hemoglobin

20% CO2 bound to hemoglobin

49

CO2 location

red blood cell cytoplasm

50

catalyzes formation of carbonic acid

Carbonic anhydrase

51

CO2 unloading at lungs

Lower [CO2] in alveoli than in blood leads to net diffusion of CO2 out of blood

Carbonic anhydrase proceeds in reverse

51

Cells for inflammatory response

Basophils