Topic 16 - Urinary System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 16 - Urinary System Deck (77):
1

Urinary System

List the structures of the urinary system

How many?

2 kidneys

2 ureters

1 urinary bladder

1 urethra

2

List the functions of the urinary system

  • Regulates
  • Eliminates wastes

3

functions of the urinary system

What does the urinary system regulate?

regulates

  1. blood volume
  2. blood pressure
  3. pH
  4. ion concentrations

4

Functions of urinary system

What kind of wastes does the urinary system eliminate?

example: urea, uric acid, hormones, drugs

5

List the 7 structures of the urinary system

 

  1. Kidneys
  2. Nephron
  3. Kidney & Nephron blood supply
  4. Juxtaglomerular complex
  5. Ureters
  6. Urinary Bladder
  7. Urethra

6

Structures of the urinary system

Kidneys

list the external anatomy

 

  • retroperitoneal
  • right lower than left
  • supported & protected by 3 layers of CT
  • renal hilus (hilum)

7

Structures of urinary system: Kidneys ► External anatomy: 

 What are the 3 layers of connective tissue?

  1. fibrous capsule
  2. perineral fat capsule
  3. renal fascia

8

Structures of urinary system ► Kidneys ►External anatomy:

 Renal hilus (hilum)

  • medial indentation
  • entry point of: 
    • renal artery (superior)
    • renal vein (inferior)
    • ureter
    • nerves

 

**vein = inferior**

9

Structures of urinary system: Kidneys

List the internal anatomy

  • renal cortex (superficial)
  • renal medulla

cortex = outer

medulla = middle

10

Structures of urinary system: Kidneys ► Internal anatomy:

What does the renal medulla contain?

  1. renal pyramids ► apex of pyramid = renal papilla
  2. renal columns ► separate pyramids and contain blood vessels

apex = top or highest part of something

 

11

cortex = ?

medulla = ?

papilla = ?

outer

middle

projection

12

Structures of urinary system:

Nephron

 

  • functional unit of kidney (microscopic)
  • composed of:
    • renal corpuscle
    • renal tubules
  • types of nephrons

13

Structures of urinary system: Nephron

Renal Corpuscle

  • in cortex
  • site of blood filtration (first step in urine formation)
  • parts
    • glomerulus
    • bowman's capsule
    • filtration membrane

14

Structures of urinary system: Nephron ► Renal corpuscle:

Glomerulus

= capillary bed

15

Structures of urinary system: Nephron ►Renal corpuscle:

Bowman's capsule

 

  • surrounds glomerulus
  • collects filtrate from glomerulus
  • 2 layers
    • outer = simple squamous epithelium
    • inner = podocytes ► wrapped around glomerular capillaries

16

Structures of urinary system: Nephron ► Renal corpuscle

filtration membrane

  • consists of 
    1. glomerular endothelium (capillaries) 
    2. basement membranes
    3. podocytes (of bowman's capsule)

17

Structures of urinary system: Nephron ► Renal corpuscle ► filtration membrane:

what type of tissue is Glomerular Endothelium? 

 

simple squamous epithelium with pores = fenestrations

18

Structures of urinary system: Nephron ► Renal corpuscle ► filtration membrane:

Type of tissue of podocytes?

simple epithelium 

projections "cling" to glomerulus

19

Structures of urinary system: Nephron 

Renal Tubules

  • 4 parts
    1. Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)
    2. Loop of Henle
    3. Distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
    4. Collecting ducts

20

Structures of urinary system: Nephron  ► Renal Tubules:

Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)

in cortex

21

Structures of urinary system: Nephron  ► Renal Tubules:

Loop of Henle

  • descending + ascending limbs
  • in medulla

22

Structures of urinary system: Nephron  ► Renal Tubules:

Distal convoluted tubule (DCT)

in cortex

23

Structures of urinary system: Nephron  ► Renal Tubules:

Collecting Ducts

 

  • in cortex and medulla
  • connect nephron to ureter (via calyces/renal pelvis)

24

Structures of urinary system: Nephron  

What are the 2 types of nephrons?

  1. Cortical
  2. Juxtamedullary 

25

Structures of urinary system: Nephron  ► 2 types of Nephrons

Cortical

  • 85%
  • renal corpuscles near kidney surface in cortex
  • short loop of henle in outer medulla
  • most abundant
  • more superficial

26

Structures of urinary system: Nephron  ► 2 types of Nephrons

Juxtamedullary 

  • 15%
  • renal corpuscles in cortex near medulla
  • long loops - penetrate deep into medulla -> allow concentration of urins depending on need

27

low ______ = ______ blood pressure

low blood volume = low blood pressure

28

way to remember the 2 types of nephrons

1. Cortical = CORTEX

2. Juxtamedullary = MEDULLA

:)

29

Kidney and Nephron Blood Supply

Starts at the: 

 

Aorta

30

Kidney and Nephron Blood Supply

After the aorta

Renal Arteries

31

Kidney and Nephron Blood Supply

After renal arteries

Segmental Arteries

32

Kidney and Nephron Blood Supply

After segmental arteries

Interlobar arteries (up columns)

33

Kidney and Nephron Blood Supply

After interlobar arteries:

Arcuate arteries (medulla/cortex junction)

34

Kidney and Nephron Blood Supply

After arcuate arteries

Cortical radiate arteries

35

Kidney and Nephron Blood Supply

After cortical radiate arteries

Afferent arterioles

 

afferent = arriving

36

Kidney and Nephron Blood Supply

After afferent arterioles

Glomeruli

37

Kidney and Nephron Blood Supply

After glomeruli

Efferent arterioles

Efferent = Exiting

38

Kidney and Nephron Blood Supply

After efferent arterioles

peritubular capillaries or vasa recta

39

Kidney and Nephron Blood Supply

After peritubular capillaries

cortical radiate veins

40

Kidney and Nephron Blood Supply

After vasa recta

cortical radiate veins

41

Kidney and Nephron Blood Supply

After corticle radiate veins

Arcuate veins

42

Kidney and Nephron Blood Supply

After arcuate veins

interlobal veins

43

Kidney and Nephron Blood Supply

After interlobar veins

renal veins

44

Kidney and Nephron Blood Supply

After renal veins

Inferior vena cava

45

Juxtaglomerular complex

 

  • regulates filtrate formation
  • point of contact between end of ascending limb, afferent + efferent arterioles at renal corpuscle of same nephron
  • 2 parts

46

What are the 2 parts of the juxtaglomerular complex?

  1. Tubular Portion
  2. Arteriolar portion

47

Juxtaglomerular Complex

Tubular Portion

modified (tall and narrow) ascemdomg limb cells = macula densa

48

Juxtaglomerular Complex

Ateriolar Portion

Afferent + efferent arteriolar portion = granular (juxtaglomerular cells)

  • monitor blood pressure
  • contain renin (enzyme + hormone)

49

Urinary Bladder

Histology

  1. Mucosa
  2. NO submucosa
  3. Muscularis externa
  4. Adventitia/Seroser

50

Urinary Bladder ► Histology

Mucosa

Transitional Epithelium with Rugae

51

Urinary Bladder ► Histology

No Submucosa

Lamina propria directly connected to muscularis externa

52

Urinary Bladder ► Histology

Muscularis Externa

= Detrusor Muscle

smooth muscle (3 layers)

Detrusor = To thrust out

53

Urinary Bladder

Adventitia/Seroser

Aventitia = Anterior, Posterior, and Inferior

Seroser = Superior

54

Urinary Bladder

Internally

triangle of 2 ureters (posterior) + urethra openings = TRIGONE

  • Trigone lacks rugae (smooth) - allows openings to remain in fixed position

55

Ureters

Histology

  1. Mucosa
  2. NO Submucosa
  3. Muscularis externa
  4. Adventitia/Seroser

56

Ureters ► Histology

Mucosa

transitional epithelium

57

Ureters ► Histology

NO Submucosa

Lamina propria directly connected to muscularis externa

58

Ureters ► Histology

Muscularis externa

Smooth muscle - 3 layers

59

Ureters ► Histology

Adventitia/Seroser

 

Retroperitoneal

60

Urethra

Histology and others points:

Histology

  1. Mucosa
  2. Muscularis externa

Other points

  • 2 sphincters (both surround proximal end of urethra)
  • in females - transports urine
  • in males - transports urine and semen

61

Urethra ► Histology

Mucosa

Transitional to stratified squamous epithelium

 

62

Urethra ► Histology

Muscularis Externs

Smooth Muscle

63

Urethra ► Other points

Name the 2 sphincters

  1. Internal urethral sphincter (smooth muscle)
  2. External urethral sphincter (skeletal muscle)

64

Urethra ► other points

Which contains smooth muscle?

A. Internal urethral sphincter

B. External Urethral sphincter 

Internal 

***inside is smooth - outside is hard***

65

Urethra ► other points

Which contains skeletal muscle

A. Internal urethral sphincter

B. External urethral sphincter

External

66

Urethra ► other points

Internal Urethral Sphincter

thickening of detrusor muscle at base of bladder

67

Urethra ► other points

External urethral sphincter

in urogenital diaphragm

68

Filtrate Movement

Filtrate moves from:

Several DCTs

distal convoluted tubules

69

Filtrate Movement

From Several DCT's to:

 

Collecting ducts (exit at renal papilla)

70

Filtrate Movement

From collecting ducts to:

Minor calyx

71

Filtrate Movement

From minor calyx to:

Major Calyx

72

Filtrate Movement

From major calyx to:

Renal pelvis

73

Filtrate Movement

From renal pelvis to

Ureter

74

Filtrate Movement

From ureter to:

Urinary bladder

75

Filtrate Movement:

From urinary bladder to

Urethra

76

Filtrate Movement

From urethra to

YOUR NAME IN THE SNOW LAWL

77

What is the difference between the peritubular capillaries and the vasa racta?

Peritubular Capillaries

  1. Found in cortex
  2. Surrounds the PCT and DCT
  3. Carries blood away from kidney

Vasa Recta

  1. Found in medulla
  2. Surrounds loop of henle
  3. Carries blood to kidney