Topic 19 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 19 Deck (52):
1

MIC =

“Minimum INHIBITORY Concentration” shows level of no growth but bacteria can still be alive

2

MBC =

“Minimum BACTERIOCIDAL Concentration” shows level at which 99.9% of bacteria is killed

3

bacteriostatic agent=

keeps a static level of bacteria (curve plateaus)

4

bacteriocidal agent=

kills bacteria (curve plummets)

5

describe gram positive

thick peptidoglycan membrane

6

describe gram negative

thin peptidoglycan membrane covered by outer membrane so they are "harder" to kill

7

how do Penicillins & Cephalosporins (β-Lactam antibiotics) work?

Prevent bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan cross-linking so newly produced bacterial cell walls are “weak” and the bacteria “fall apart”
•These antibiotics are “cidal”

8

β-lactamase is a significant source of what?

antibiotic resistance among microbes

9

“First Generation” Penicillins are effective against what?

gram-positive organisms (particularly Strep)
gram negative cocci
and a few others,

10

which penicillin is the archetype

Penicillin-G (benzylpenicillin)

11

Penicillin-G

(benzylpenicillin)

12

Anti-staphylococcal Penicillins drug names (3)

Dicloxacillin (Dynapen)
Oxacillin
Nafcillin (Nallpe)

13

Dicloxacillin

(Dynapen)

14

Nafcillin

(Nallpe)

15

Broad-Spectrum Penicillins drug names (2)

Ampicillin
Amoxicillin

16

what is the DRUG OF CHOICE for pre-cardiac surgery dental prophyllaxis!

Amoxicillin

17

Antipseudomonal Penicillins drug names (3)

Carbenicillin (Geocillin)
Piperacillin (Piperacil)
Ticarcillin (Ticar)

18

Carbenicillin

(Geocillin)

19

Piperacillin

(Piperacil)

20

Ticarcillin

(Ticar)

21

Antipseudomonal Penicillins are used for what?

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

22

what is Pseudomonas aeruginosa

a very problematic, very pathogenic gram negative that readily develops resistance to antibiotics
--causes blue/green pus

23

what drug also has a β-lactam ring like the penicillins but no antimicrobial activity.

Clavulanic acid (CA)

24

what does Clavulanic acid (CA) do?

CA is a suicide inhibitor of bacterial β-lactamase that attaches to and permanently deactivates the enzyme.

25

what drugs are Clavulanic acid (CA) combined with?

amoxicillin (Augmentin) OR ticarcillin (Timentin)

26

what will happen to a patient with inflamed meninges if you give them penicillin

inflamed meninges are more permeable to penicillin so it will cross the blood brain barrier

27

what category of antimicrobial are commonly used in open heart surgery and as part of the “prime”

Cephalosporins

28

1st Generation Cephalosporins drug name

Cefazolin (Kefzol)

29

Cefazolin

(Kefzol)

30

2nd Generation Cephalosporins drug names (3)

Cefoxitin (Mefoxin)
Cefotetan (Cefotan)
Cefuroxime (Ceftin)

31

Cefoxitin

(Mefoxin)

32

Cefotetan

(Cefotan)

33

Cefuroxime

(Ceftin)

34

Vancomycin targets what type of microorganism

Spectrum of activity limited to gram positives

35

Vancomycin is Reserved for use in

MRSA, Methicillin Resistant Staph epidermidis (MRSE) and enterococcal infections.

36

if Aminoglycosides end in “…mycin” they’re from what?

Streptomyces sp

37

if Aminoglycosides end in “…micin” they’re from what?

Micromonospora sp

38

how do Aminoglycosides work?

Interfere with bacterial protein synthesis by binding to bacterial ribosomal 30S subunit…
*This action is “cidal”

39

Aminoglycosides spectrum of activity limited to what?

gram negative bacteria, such as E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

40

Aminoglycosides exhibit a _____ effect when used with pens, cephs, and vancomycin for resistant bacteria

synergistic

41

Aminoglycosides exhibit concentration-dependent killing- which is what?

Increasing concentrations of aminoglycosides kill increasing proportions of bacteria at increasing rates

42

Aminoglycosides: Unlike other drugs discussed, aminoglycosides exhibit poor ...

CNS penetration even in the presence of meningitis

43

Aminoglycosides drug names (4)

Streptomycin
Tobramycin (Nebcin)
Amikacin (Amikin)
Gentamicin

44

Tobramycin

(Nebcin)

45

Amikacin

(Amikin)

46

which Aminoglycosides is rarely used and has lots of resistance

Streptomycin

47

which Aminoglycosides has the LEAST bacterial resistance

Amikacin (Amikin)

48

All aminoglycosides cross what?

the blood/placenta barrier and concentrate in fetal tissue!

49

Aminoglycoside Toxicity results in what?

#1) Ototoxicity: vestibular &/or cochlear
#2) Neuromuscular Paralysis PARTICULARLY with myasthenia gravis patients
#3) Nephrotoxocity ranging from mild to total renal destruction

50

which Aminoglycosides is used only topically (too nephrotoxic)

Neomycin

51

which Aminoglycosides was first produced. LOTS of microbial resistance has developed

Streptomycin

52

which Aminoglycosides (2) have mid-level microbial resistance

Gentamicin
Tobramycin (Nebcin)