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Flashcards in Topic 2 Deck (15):
1

What are the types of levers?

First class lever system.
Second class lever system.
Third class lever system.

2

What makes up a lever?

The fulcrum (is shown as a triangle).
The effort (is an arrow pointing in the direction that the effort it applied).
The load (is a square).

3

What is a lever within a body?

The lever is a bone.
The fulcrum (or pivot) is a joint.
The effort (or force) is provided by muscles.
The weight of the body part or object being moved it the load.

4

What is a first class lever and an example?

L------F------E(down)

In a attacking header, the head coming down on the ball is the load, the fulcrum is the atlas and axis joint, and the muscles allowing the head to move in this way provide the effort.

5

What is the anagram for the levers

FLE (The middle part).
123 (The different levers).

6

What is a second class lever and an example?

F------L------E(up)

During calf raises, the ball of the foot is the fulcrum; the gastrocnemius provides the effort to lift the whole body weight, and the weights being held are the load.

7

What is a third class lever and an example?

F------E(up)------L

An example of a third class lever is a bicep curl. The fulcrum is the elbow joint, the load is the weight being lifted, and the effort is provided by the biceps pulling the lever (the bone) to lift the weight.

8

What are the two main functions of levers?

To move a load faster and further than is possible without a lever.
To move a heavier load than can be moved without a lever.
These are known as mechanical advantages.

9

What are the advantages and disadvantages of 2nd class and 3rd class levers?

2nd class
Advantage:
Provides force to lift heavy loads.
Disadvantage:
Small range of movement and cannot move load quickly.

3rd class
Advantage:
Provides speed and wide range of movement.
Disadvantage:
Greater force required than the load to be moved.

10

What are the different planes?

The sagittal plane divides the left and right side of the body, vertically.
The frontal plane divides the front the front and the black of the body, vertically.
The transverse plane divides the top and bottom of the body, horizontally.

11

What are the different axes?

The sagittal axis goes front to back.
The frontal axis goes from side to side.
The vertical axis goes from top to bottom.

12

What planes and axes are together and an example?

Sagittal plane and frontal axis. Somersault.
Frontal plane and sagittal axis. Cartwheel.
Transverse plane and vertical axis. Full twist in trampolining.

13

What movements are possible at the sagittal plane and frontal axis?

The only movements that can occur in the sagittal plane about the frontal axis are:
Flexion
Extension

14

What movements are possible at the frontal plane and sagittal axis?

The only movements that can occur in the frontal plane about the sagittal axis are:
Abduction
Adduction

15

What movements are possible at the transverse plane and vertical axis?

The only movements that can occur in the transverse plane about the vertical axis are:
Rotation
Twisting