Flashcards in Topic 2 Deck (23):
What types of administration avoid first pass metabolism
injections; transdermal; sublingual
Disadvantages of injections
require training to administer
Skin is usually an effective what
Skin is usually an effective barrier
What properties must the transdermal administrated drug have
small, fat soluble
What properties must the sublingual administrated drug have
small, fat soluble
The choice of a particular route is determined to a large extent by
the way the body handles the drug
Advantages of delivering drug directly to site of action (3)
minimises non-specific effects; good control of dosage; not suitable for all regions (e.g. heart)
Most drugs are delivered how
indirectly via the bloodstream
What is insulin used for
What is salbutamol used for
What is aspirin used for
pain, fever and inflammation
What is glyceryl trinitrate used for
What is the role of insulin
a protein (large peptide hormone) that controls the amount of sugar in the blood and that is normally produced by the pancreas.
Description of diabetes
in some individuals, the cells that make insulin are destroyed, causing the disease diabetes mellitus.
How is diabetes treated
individuals are treated with insulin injections, usually prior to meals (therefore individuals require at least one, if not more injections per day).
Why are injections used to treat diabetes rather than tables/syrup
or enzymes in the digestive tract, insulin is just another protein, so it would be digested just like any other protein in food and never reach its site of action in the body.
Insulin can be modified to be
fast or slow acting
What is the role of salbutamol
dilates the respiratory passages and is used to treat asthma.
What does salbutamol act on
beta andrenoreceptors in the airways to dilate them (these receptors also found in blood vessels where they reduce blood pressure)
How can salbutamol be taken
orally or through inhalation
What happens to salbutamol when taken orally
salbutamol is not metabolised to an appreciable extent in the digestive tract or liver, so when taken orally most of it is absorbed into the general circulation.
What method do most asthmatics use to intake salbutamol
most asthmatics would inhale salbutamol from a puffer rather than swallowing it as a tablet