Topic 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 2 Deck (23):
1

What types of administration avoid first pass metabolism

injections; transdermal; sublingual

2

Disadvantages of injections

require training to administer

3

Skin is usually an effective what

Skin is usually an effective barrier

4

What properties must the transdermal administrated drug have

small, fat soluble

5

What properties must the sublingual administrated drug have

small, fat soluble

6

The choice of a particular route is determined to a large extent by

the way the body handles the drug

7

Advantages of delivering drug directly to site of action (3)

minimises non-specific effects; good control of dosage; not suitable for all regions (e.g. heart)

8

Most drugs are delivered how

indirectly via the bloodstream

9

What is insulin used for

diabetes

10

What is salbutamol used for

asthma

11

What is aspirin used for

pain, fever and inflammation

12

What is glyceryl trinitrate used for

angina

13

What is the role of insulin

a protein (large peptide hormone) that controls the amount of sugar in the blood and that is normally produced by the pancreas.

14

Description of diabetes

in some individuals, the cells that make insulin are destroyed, causing the disease diabetes mellitus.

15

How is diabetes treated

individuals are treated with insulin injections, usually prior to meals (therefore individuals require at least one, if not more injections per day).

16

Why are injections used to treat diabetes rather than tables/syrup

or enzymes in the digestive tract, insulin is just another protein, so it would be digested just like any other protein in food and never reach its site of action in the body.

17

Insulin can be modified to be

fast or slow acting

18

What is the role of salbutamol

dilates the respiratory passages and is used to treat asthma.

19

What does salbutamol act on

beta andrenoreceptors in the airways to dilate them (these receptors also found in blood vessels where they reduce blood pressure)

20

How can salbutamol be taken

orally or through inhalation

21

What happens to salbutamol when taken orally

salbutamol is not metabolised to an appreciable extent in the digestive tract or liver, so when taken orally most of it is absorbed into the general circulation.

22

What method do most asthmatics use to intake salbutamol

most asthmatics would inhale salbutamol from a puffer rather than swallowing it as a tablet

23

Why do most asthmatics inhale salbutamol rather than take it orally

while salbutamol is effective when taken orally, inhalation delivers it directly to its site of action in the lungs. This means that it is effective at a lower dose than if taken orally (where the dose is increased to account for some loss that occurs along the way); also, it produces its effects more rapidly (within minutes); reduces side effects