Topic 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 2 Deck (18):

What happens to salbutamol after inhaled compared to orally

will act on lung site then eventually some of the drug will be absorbed into the general circulation from blood vessels in the lungs, but because the initial dose is usually smaller than if taken orally, less of it reaches other areas of the body and side effects are minimised.


What is aspirin used for

to relieve pain and reduce fever and inflammation, usually in areas that are not easily accessible directly.


Why can aspirin be taken as a tablet (orally)

it does survive the digestive tract and liver in sufficient amounts to be effective when swallowed as a tablet


What is another form of aspirin intake

aspirin drugs may be formulated into creams


What would aspirin cream be used for

for some conditions such as muscular pain,


How does aspirin cream work

the drug may be applied to the skin from where it is absorbed into the underlying muscle layers to provide pain relief


What is glyceryl trinitrate

it is an explosive dynamite, but it is safe in oily solutions and useful for dilating blood vessels


What is another name for glyceryl trinitrate



What is glyceryl trinitrate usually used for

it is used to treat angina pectoris through dilating the blood vessels in the heart, thus increasing the oxygen supply to the heart and relieving chest pain.


What is angina pectoris

insufficient blood flow to the heart, resulting in severe chest pain as the heart tries to contract with insufficient oxygen.


Is glyceryl trinitrate destroyed by digestive enzymes

no it is not destroyed by digestive enzymes but is metabolised by enzymes in the liver


First pass effect

further metabolism, particularly of drugs and toxics that occurs once food has been digested and transferred to a blood vessel leading directly to the liver.


Drugs differ in their susceptibility to

liver enzymes.


How much is glyceryl trinitrate metabolised by liver enzymes

some drugs like glyceryl trinitrate are completely metabolised while for other drugs, there may be partial or no metabolism.


What happens to the fractions of drugs that are not metabolised

the fraction that is not metabolised is transferred to the general circulation and carried to sites of action.


Why can’t glyceryl trinitrate be taken orally

the amount of glyceryl trinitrate that escaped the liver metabolism is so small that it is ineffective.


How can glyceryl trinitrate be administrated

through transdermal administration (skin patches); sublingual administration (tablet placed under the tongue)


Does glyceryl trinitrate need to be taken in through injections