Flashcards in Topic 2 Deck (18):
What happens to salbutamol after inhaled compared to orally
will act on lung site then eventually some of the drug will be absorbed into the general circulation from blood vessels in the lungs, but because the initial dose is usually smaller than if taken orally, less of it reaches other areas of the body and side effects are minimised.
What is aspirin used for
to relieve pain and reduce fever and inflammation, usually in areas that are not easily accessible directly.
Why can aspirin be taken as a tablet (orally)
it does survive the digestive tract and liver in sufficient amounts to be effective when swallowed as a tablet
What is another form of aspirin intake
aspirin drugs may be formulated into creams
What would aspirin cream be used for
for some conditions such as muscular pain,
How does aspirin cream work
the drug may be applied to the skin from where it is absorbed into the underlying muscle layers to provide pain relief
What is glyceryl trinitrate
it is an explosive dynamite, but it is safe in oily solutions and useful for dilating blood vessels
What is another name for glyceryl trinitrate
What is glyceryl trinitrate usually used for
it is used to treat angina pectoris through dilating the blood vessels in the heart, thus increasing the oxygen supply to the heart and relieving chest pain.
What is angina pectoris
insufficient blood flow to the heart, resulting in severe chest pain as the heart tries to contract with insufficient oxygen.
Is glyceryl trinitrate destroyed by digestive enzymes
no it is not destroyed by digestive enzymes but is metabolised by enzymes in the liver
First pass effect
further metabolism, particularly of drugs and toxics that occurs once food has been digested and transferred to a blood vessel leading directly to the liver.
Drugs differ in their susceptibility to
How much is glyceryl trinitrate metabolised by liver enzymes
some drugs like glyceryl trinitrate are completely metabolised while for other drugs, there may be partial or no metabolism.
What happens to the fractions of drugs that are not metabolised
the fraction that is not metabolised is transferred to the general circulation and carried to sites of action.
Why can’t glyceryl trinitrate be taken orally
the amount of glyceryl trinitrate that escaped the liver metabolism is so small that it is ineffective.
How can glyceryl trinitrate be administrated
through transdermal administration (skin patches); sublingual administration (tablet placed under the tongue)