Topic 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 2 Deck (17):
1

Why is metabolism not constant (3)

1) can be increased (expression, induction); 2) can be decreased (competition, inhibitors); 3) can vary between people

2

Drug metabolism is an important consideration in

drug design

3

Enzymes

specialised proteins that perform biotransformation that take place in the liver

4

Do all cells have enzymes and do they have the same tasks

all cells have enzymes and each specialises in one particular task (e.g. breaking molecules apart, linking small molecules into long chains)

5

Excretion

disposing of a substance

6

What is the first step to make the substance easier to excrete in the urine

making them less lipid soluble

7

What does most drugs are metabolised in the liver where there is a limited supply of enzymes mean

there often competition between different drugs/other molecules

8

For drugs being metabolised, drugs/molecules with greater affinity for enzymes compared to less affinity means

they will be metabolised more readily, while those with less affinity remain active in the body for longer.

9

How can some drugs accelerate their rate of metabolism

through stimulate an increase in the production of their metabolic enzymes

10

What does accelerating the rate of drug metabolism account for

the development of tolerance to some drugs (a decrease in the effectiveness with repeated use)

11

Consequences of developing tolerance to drug, in terms of other drug metabolism

other drugs broken down by the same enzymes will also have reduced effectiveness

12

An example of a drug that is able to accelerate its metabolism

alcohol

13

Metabolites

products of enzymatic breakdown

14

Are metabolites more/less/equally effective as drugs

generally less chemically active than thew original molecule, however drug metabolites can have chemical activities of their own which are sometimes as powerful as those of the original drug.

15

What is it called when drugs are more effective after metabolism + example

pro-drug; codeine

16

What is the liver referred to

detoxifying organ

17

When prescribing drugs, what must doctors take into account

the added effects of metabolites