Topic 2: Broiler Husbandry and Management Flashcards Preview

ASCI 330: Poultry Management > Topic 2: Broiler Husbandry and Management > Flashcards

Flashcards in Topic 2: Broiler Husbandry and Management Deck (34)
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four functional types of the chicken:

1. dual-purpose (eggs & meat)
2. fancy (ornamental, exhibition)
3. game (cockfighting)
4. single-purpose (primarily eggs or meat)


development of broiler: female line

- plymouth rock - american class
- dual purpose (general purpose)
- large, hardy, docile
- moderately deep full breast
- yellow skin and legs


development of broiler: male line

- cornish - english class
- muscular, wide width of breast
- legs set apart
- single purpose: meat bird
- relatively poor egg production


advantages of cross breeding

- heterosis
- exploit complementarity of breeds or lines
- combine characteristics that cannot easily be improved simultaneously in a single breed
- protection of genetic improvement in selection lines of commercial companies


what is heterosis

provides genetic enhancement of offspring via crossbreeding between certain breeds or lines together to obtain desirable traits


selection traits of broiler production:

- growth rate
- feed efficiency
- body confirmation
- livability


advantages of vertical integration

- high degree of control over product
- steady and controllable supply
- captures economies of scale
- lower transaction costs
- absorb upstream and downstream profits
- quality assurance
- consolidation of the industry
- increase entry barriers for new entrants


disadvanatges of vertical integration

- monopoly
- rigid organizational structure
- loss of flexibility
- investment requirements/capital costs


genetic potential of commercial broiler can only be realized if _____ and _______ are used

good poultry husbandry practices and management are used


successful production depends on satisfying the basic demands of flock:

- housing
- feeding and nutrition
- disease prevention
- welfare


purpose of broiler breeders

- provide the eggs necessary to supply industry demand for young meat birds



- eggs are scanned with light pulses to determine fertility
- infertile eggs are rejected
- fertile eggs are injected with a vaccination (marek's disease) by making a small injection at the top of egg


chick selection - quality traits

- hatched from one flock source
- large size and well developed
- uniform size and color
- well dried and fluffed
- alert & active
- free of defects and deformities


chick management - transport

- vehicle must control chick's environment
- in box temperature of 90F
--plastic boxes - 75F
-- cardboard boxes - 71F
- cooling required if outside temperature exceeds 86F
- boxes stacked to allow free movement


housing qualities

- cost effective, durable
- provides controllable environment (temperature, humidity, air quality)
- site - well drained, oriented east-west
- roof - insulated, reflective surface


traits in litters & what type not used

- availability, suitability, economics
- reused litter
- hardwood shaving should not be used


advantages of reusing litter

- cost, availability, disposal restrictions
- source of microbes, pathogen resistance, B12
- decaking, windrowing


factors of heating

- maintain proper temp to promote efficient growth
- chicks not able to completely maintain body temperature until 14 days of age
- preheat to target temp prior to arrival


brooding temperature affects

chick behavior
- correct temperature is indicated by chicks being evenly spread throughout the brooding area


two basic practices for brooding broilers:

- whole/partial house brooding
- spot brooding


advantages & disadvantages of whole house brooding

- advantages:
- optimal access to feed and water
- dont have to assure birds are uniformly distributed in house at move or turn out
- do not have stress of moving birds from their comfort zone
- setup & heat whole house
- may be difficult to tell if too hot


part house brooding

- start birds in part the house
- turn them out to rest of house by day 7
- saves heat since chicks don't need space of whole house


radiant heat vs convection heat

- radiant heat: focuses heat to the floor and the birds
-convection heat: primarily heats the entire inside


factors of humidity

- range between 50-70%
- maintain litter quality
- prevent air form becoming too dry and dusty
- high humidity increases cooling costs
- proper air flow reduces effects of high humidity


importance of ventilation

- as growth potential increases, requirement for oxygen and heat removal increases
- ensure fresh air, remove moisture w/o dropping temp


how does minimum ventilation operate

air pulled out of the house by fans, air rushes in through curtains, vent openings, and cracks to replace it


reducing house moisture

- the amount of moisture that air can hold is dependent upon air temp
- for every 20F rise in temp, the moisture-holding capacity increases 50%


tunnel ventilation

- when temp are hot or birds are big and producing heat-must move lots of air across birds
- fans will stage on as temp increase to increase cooling
- if moving air across birds doesn't provide enough cooling then we use cool cells
-- trickle water over cardboard pads
-- pull air through the pads and the water absorbs the heat from the air


what are the ventilation guidelines

1. tunnel ventilation should not be used before 28 days of age
2. air speed across the birds should be maintained as low as possible
3. chicken houses should never be ventilated to suit the grower


lighting program

- historically provided continous light to max daily weight gain
- long continuous period of light, followed by a short dark period to allow birds to become accustomed to darkness in the event of power faillure
- devised to modify growth, minimize FCR or reduce mortality
- stimulate early feed intake