Topic 2: Chemical Level of Organization Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 2: Chemical Level of Organization Deck (59):
1

Knowledge of basic chemistry needed for understanding 

  • Anatomy and Physiology
  • Difference between healthy and diseased person

2

Structure of an atom

Nucleus contains

Protons: positive charge

Neutrons: neutral charge

3

Structure of an atom

Orbiting the nucleus

Electrons: negative charge

4

Atoms are electrically Neutral - The number of electrons and protons is equal (neutrons may not be equal to these)

:)

5

ions

If an atom loses or gains an electron, it is __________

and becomes an ion

It is no longer neutral.

6

ions

what is it called when an atom gains an electron?

it becomes a negative ion, which is called an anion.

A = -

7

ions

What is it called when an atom loses an electron?

It becomes a positive ion, which is called a cation.

t = +

8

Name important ions (electrolytes)

 

  • Calcium (Ca2+)
  • Sodium (Na+)
  • Potassium (K+)
  • Hydrogen (H+)
  • Chloride (Cl-)

SPHCC

NaKHCaCl

9

What are chemical bonds?

 

  • Bond atoms together to form molecules
  • Types of bonds: 
    • Ionic bond 
    • Covalent bond 
  • These chemical bonds allow the formation of chemical compounds which may be organic or inorganic

10

What is an ionic bond?

  • Ions formed
  • Atom to atom transfer of electrons
    • example: NaCl
      • Na loses electron = Na+
      • Cl gains electron = Cl-
      • The positive (Na+) and negative (Cl-) ions attract forming the bond
      • In H20 NaCl dissociates (dissolves/separates/ionizes) into ions: Na+, Cl​-

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What is a covalent bond?

Sharing electrons between atoms

example: CH4

12

Chemical Bonds

What is Organic Substances?

Covalently bonded carbon (C) atoms 

 

13

Chemical Bonds

Name a few examples of organic substances

Carbs

Proteins

Lipids

Nucleic Acids

14

Chemical Bonds

What is an inorganic substance?

Usually lack C (carbon) atoms

15

Chemical Substances

Name a few examples of inorganic substances

Water

NaCl

O2

16

Chemical Bonds

What inorganic substances contain C atoms?

Carbonic Acid: H2CO

Bicarbonate: HC03-

Carbon Dioxide: C02

Carbon Monoxide: CO

 

17

Water (6)

  • Inorganic
  • Most abundant substance in cells
  • Polar molecules - unequal sharing of electrons leads to a slight charge difference
  • Many reactions in the body take place in H2O = Universal solvent
  • Transports chemicals (e.g. O2, nutrients)
  • Maintains body temperature (37c)

18

Acids and Bases

  • May be organic OR inorganic
  1.  Acids
  2. Bases
  3. pH scale

19

Acids

  • Dissociate in H2O releasing H+ ions
    • [H+] increases = pH decreases
    • e.g. hydrochloric acid (HCl) in H2O → H+ Cl-

20

Bases

  • Substances that bind free H+ ions in H2
    • [H+] decreases = pH increases 
  • example 1:

NaOH in H2O → Na+ + OH- (hydroxyl ion) then OH(base) + H+ → H2O

  • example 2:

HCO3- (bicarbonate) + H+ H2CO3 (carbonic acid)

  • OH- and HCO3- act as bases by binding to the free H+ ions.

 

 

21

pH Scale

  • [H+] of free H+ in solution
  • Basic → Acidic increases [H+]
  • 0acidic-------7neutral--------14basic/alkaline
  • e.g. pH of blood = 7.35 - 7.45

22

Name important organic substances

  1. Carbohydrates
  2. Lipids
  3. Proteins
  4. Nucleic Acids
  5. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

23

What does ATP stand for?

Adenosine Triphosphate

24

Important Organic Substances

Carbohydrates

  • Consists of C, H, and O
  • Functions
    • source of energy for cells                      example: C6H12O(glucose)
    • cellular structures                                           example: DNA + RNA
  • Naming
    • Monosacharrides
    • Disaccharides
    • Polysaccharides

 

 

 

25

Important Organic Substances: Carbohydrates

Monosaccharides

 

 

  • Simple sugars
  • Basic building blocks of other carbohydrates
  • Example: glucose, fructose, ribose, deoxyribose

26

Important Organic Substances

Lipids

  • what is it consisted of?
  • examples
  • soluble or insoluble?
  • polar or non polar?
  • list the 3 functions
  • list the 4 types

  • C, H, O (ratio difference from carbs)
  • example: fats, oils, waxes, fatty acids (FA)
  • Insoluble (nonpolar) in water
  • Functions: 
    • Protects organs (padding)
    • Build cell membranes
    • Source of stored energy
  • Types
    • Glycerides 
    • Phospholipids
    • Cholesterol
    • Steroids

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Important Organic Substances: Carbohydrates

Disaccharides

  • 2 monosaccharides covalently bonded together
  • example: glucose + fructose = sucrose

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Important Organic Substances

Polysaccharides

  • Many monosaccharides (basic building blocks) bonded together
  • Example: glycogen (animals), starch (plants)

29

Important Organic Substances: Lipids

Glycerides

  • Most common lipid in body and diet
  • Composed of 2 building blocks:
    • glycerol (backbone)
    • Fatty acids (FAs)
  • Naming: 
    • glycerol + 1 FA = monoglyceride
    • glycerol + 2 FAs = diglycerides
    • glycerol + 3 FAs = triglyceride

30

Important organic substances: Lipids-Glyceride

monoglyceride

 

glycerol + 1 FA 

31

Important organic substances: Lipids-Glyceride

Diglyceride

glycerol + 2 FAs

32

Important organic substances: Lipids-Glyceride

Triglyceride

glycerol + 3 FAs

33

Important organic substances: Lipids

Phospholipids

  • 3 building blocks
    • phosphate "head" group (polar)
      • hydrophillic (water soluble)
    • glycerol backbone 
    • 2 FAs "tails" (non polar)
      • hydrophobic (water insoluble)
        • example: diglyceride with a phosphate head group

34

Important Organic Substances: Lipids

Cholesterol

found in cell membranes and used to synthesize steroids

35

Important Organic Substances: Lipids

Steroids

  • derived from cholesterol
  • example: bile salts, vitamin D, hormones (testosterone, estrogen, etc)

36

Important Organic Substances

Proteins

  • Consists of C, H, O, N, (also sometimes S)
  • example: albumin
  • Functions:
    • structural materials (example: collagen)
    • enzymes, hormones, transporters
    • antibodies
  • Naming
    • Amino acids (aa)
    • Dipeptides
    • Polypeptides
    • Protein

37

Important Organic Substances: Proteins

Amino Acids

  • basic building blocks of all amino acids
  • use the name of the aa itself (example: glycine)

38

Important Organic Substances: Proteins

Dipeptides

2 aa

39

Important Organic Substances: Proteins

Polypeptides

many amino acids

40

Important Organic Substances: Proteins

Protein

1 or more polypeptides folded into its final shape

41

Important Organic Substances

Nucleic Acids

  • consists of C, H, O, N, P
  • 2 forms
    • DNA 
    • RNA
  • building blocks called nucleotides
  • each nucleotide contains
    • PO4- (phosphate)
    • monosaccharide (simple sugar)
      • ribose in RNA or deoxyribose in DNA
    • organic base:
      • A
      • T (DNA only)
      • U (RNA only)
      • C
      • G
  • Structures in DNA and RNA are different

42

Important Organic Substance: Nucleic Acids

What is the DNA structure

 

  • PO- deoxyribose - A, T, C or G
  • Bases bind to form double-stranded helix (twisted ladder)
    • A to T
    • G to C
  • Alternating sugar and phosphate form "uprights"
  • Bases "rungs" 
  • Functions:
    • celular reproduction
    • used as a template to make RNA

43

Important Organic Substances: Nucleic Acid

What is the structure of RNA?

  • PO- Ribose - A, U, C, or G
  • single stranded
    • A to U
    • G to C
  • Function
    • Protein synthesis

44

Important Organic Substances 

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

  • energy stored in covalent bonds - powers cellular activities
  • structure = 3 PO4 + ribose + adenine (modified RNA nucleotide)
  • In figure 2.23 = high energy bond
  • breaking bond creates immediately useable energy
  • ATP → ADP (adenosine diphosphate) + Pi (inorganic phosphate)

45

What does ADP stand for?

adenosine diphosphate

46

what does Pi stand for?

Inorganic phosphate

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Phospholipids

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Carbonic Acid

 

 H2CO3 ​

57

Bicarbonate

HC03-

58

 

Carbon Dioxide

 

C02

59

 

Carbon Monoxide

CO