Topic 20 - Special Senses Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 20 - Special Senses Deck (100):
1

Eye

  • how many layers?
  • shape of layers?
  • layers filled with what?

  • 3 layers
  • sphere
  • filled with fluid

3 layered sphere filled with fluid

2

structural features of the eye

  1. fibrous tunic
  2. vascular tunic
  3. retina (nervous (sensory) tunic)
  4. Lens
  5. Anterior segment
  6. posterior segment

3

fibrous tunic

  • list the 3 parts

  1. sclera (white)
  2. cornea (transparent)
  3. conjunctiva

4

what kind of tissue is the sclera composed of?

 

 

avascular connective tissue 

5

what kind of tissue is the cornea composed of?

avascular connective tissue

6

conjunctive

  • covers what?
  • what does it contain?

  • covers anterior sclera
  • vascular mucous membrane

7

vascular mucous membrane

when vessels dilate = bloodshot eyes

8

when vessels dilate

bloodshot eyes

9

what parts of the fibrous tunic is composed of avascular CT?

the sclera and cornea

10

what part of the fibrous tunic is NOT composed of avascular CT

the conjunctiva

11

covers anterior sclera

conjunctiva

12

list the 4 parts of the vascular tunic

  1. choroid (posterior)
  2. ciliary body (anterior)
  3. iris
  4. pupil

13

choroid 

  1. anterior or posterior?
  2. what does it contain?
  3. it is highly ______

  1. posterior
  2. contains melanin
  3. highly vascular

14

ciliary body 

  1. anterior or posterior? 
  2. ciliary ______ + ciliary ______ - focuses what?

  1. anterior
  2. ciliary muscle + ciliary processes -focus the lens

15

contains melanin and is highly vascular

choroid

16

iris 

  • what part of the eye?

coloured part of the eye

17

pupil

 

hole in iris

18

hole in iris

pupil

19

nervous (sensory) tunic is also called what?

retina

20

what are the 4 parts of the retina

  1. outer pigmented later
  2. inner neural layer
  3. fovea centralis
  4. optic disc

21

  1. outer pigmented layer
  2. inner neural layer
  3. fovea centeralis
  4. optic disc

part of what tunic?

nervous tunic

22

outer pigmented layer has:

-

23

inner neural layer

  • how many layers of _____
  • name these layers

  • 3 layers of neurons
    1. ​​photoreceptors
    2. bipolar cells
    3. ganglion cells

24

photoreceptors

  • how many types?
  • list the types of photoreceptors

  • 2 types
    • rods (black & white)
    • cones (colour)

25

bipolar cells

x

26

ganglion cells

____ from ____ called ______

axons from optic nerve called cranial nerve II

27

cranial nerve II

axons from optic nerve

28

fovea centralis

  • what is focused here?
  • area of?
  • does it contain rods? cones? both? 

  • where light is focused
  • area of greatest visual acuity
  • no rods, just cones

29

where light is focused

fovea centralis

30

no rods, just cones

fovea centralis

31

area of greatest visual acuity

fovea centralis

32

optic disc

  • ____ spot where __________ and ________ exit or enter _____
  • does it contain rods? cones? none? both?

  • blind spot where blood vessels optic nerve EXIT eye
  • no rods OR cones

33

blind spot where blood vessels + optic nerve exit eye

optic disc

34

has no rods or cones

a) outerpigmented layer

b) inner neural layer

c) fovea centralis

d) optic disc

 

OPTIC DISC

35

lens

  • vascular or avascular?
  • transparent or not transparent?
  • what = clouding of lens

avacular, transparent

cataracts

36

cataracts

clouding of lens

37

anterior segment

  • anterior or posterior to lens?
  • what does it contain?
    • _____ similar to what?

  • anterior to lens
  • contains aqueous humor
    • fluid similar to plasma

38

fluid similar to plasma

aqueous humor

39

anterior to lens

anteior segment

40

posterior segment

  • anterior or posterior to lens?
  • contains what? 

  • posterior to lens
  • contains vitreous humor 

41

posterior to lens

posterior segment

42

contains vitreous humor

posterior segment

43

describe the vitreous humor

gel-like

44

List the structural features of the ear

  1. external ear
  2. middle ear
  3. inner ear (labyrinth)
  4. cochlea
  5. receptors in inner ear

45

list the parts of the external ear

 

  1. auricle (pinna)
  2. external auditory canal (meatus)
  3. tympanic membrane (eardrum)

46

what does the external ear conduct?

sound

47

what structural parts of the ear conducts sound?

  • external 
  • middle
  • inner

48

what are the parts of the middle ear?

  1. eaustachian tube
  2. ear ossicles

49

auricle (pinna) 

elastic cartilage, covered with skin

50

elastic cartilage, covered with skin

auricle (pinna) 

51

external auditory canal (meatus)

x

52

tympanic membrane (eardrum)

x

53

  • auricle (pinna)
  • external auditory canal (meatus)
  • tympanic membrane (eardrum)

 part of:

external ear

54

middle ear

  • what does it conduct?
  • name the 2 parts

  • conducts sound
  • parts:
    1. eustachian tube
    2. ear ossicles

55

eustachian tube

  • part of?
  • also called

  • part of middle ear
  • also called pharyngotympanic tube

56

ear ossicles

  • part of?
  • name the 3 parts

  • part of middle ear 
  • 3 parts:
    1. malleus
    2. incus
    3. stapes

57

pharyngotympanic tube is also called

eustachian tube

58

malleus

  • secured to what?

  • secured to tympanic membrane

59

what part of the ear ossicle is secured to the tympanic membrane?

malleus

60

incus

x

61

stapes

  • transmits what to where via what?

transmits sound to inner ear via oval window

62

what part of the middle ear transmits sound to inner ear via oval window

stapes

63

this part of ear is composed of the eustachian tube and ear ossicles

middle ear

64

inner ear (labyrinth)

  • conducts what?
  • name the 2 parts

  • contains sound
  • parts:
    1. bony labyrinth
    2. membranous labyrinth

65

bony labyrinth

  • tunnels where? which contains what?
  • name the 3 parts

  • tunnels in temporal bone
    • contains perilymph
  • parts:
    1. ​ semicircular canals
    2. vestibule
    3. cochlea

66

semicircular canals

  • part of what?
  • "_______"

  • part of bony labyrinth
  • equilibrium

67

vestibule 

  • part of?
  • "_______"

  • part of bony labyrinth
  • equilibrium

68

what parts of the bony labyrinth of inner ear has this description?

"equilibrium"

  • semicircular canals 
  • vestibule

69

cochlea

  • part of?
  • "______"

  • part of bony labyrinth
  • hearing

70

semicircular canals, vestibule, and cochlea is part of what?

bony labyrinth

71

membranous labyrinth

  • surrounded and protected by what?
  • contains?
  • name the 3 parts

  • surrounded and protected by bony labyrinth
  • contains endolymph
  • parts:
    1. semicircular duct
    2. utricle & saccule
    3. cochlear duct

72

bony labyrinth surrounds and protects what?

membranous labyrinth

73

contains endolymph

membranous labyrinth

74

semicircular duct

  • part of what?
  • located where?

  • membranous labyrinth
  • inside canals

75

utricle & saccule

  • part of what?
  • located where?

  • part of membrane labyrinth
  • inside vestibule

76

cochlear duct

  • part of what?
  • located where?

  • part of membranous labyrinth
  • inside cochlea

77

inside cochlea

cochlear duct

78

inside vestibule

utricle & saccule

79

inside canals

semicircular duct

80

structure of ear: cochlea

  • c____d
  • each _____ has how many _____
  • has 3 ______

  • coiled
  • each coil has 3 channels
  • has 3 membranes

81

each coil has 3 channels:

1. ?

2. ?

3. ?

 

 

  1. scala vestibuli
  2. scala tympani
  3. cohclear duct

82

scala vestibuli

  • lower of upper?
  • perilymph or endolymph?

upper

perilymph

83

scala tympani

  • lower of upper?
  • perilymph or endolymph?

lower

perilymph

84

list the difference and similarity between the scala vestibuli and the scala tympani

difference 

vestibuli - upper

tympani - lower

similarity

perilymph

85

cochlear duct

  • upper? lower? neither?
  • perilymph or endolymph?

 

middle

endolymph

86

name the 3 membranes of the cochlea

  1. vestibular membrane
  2. basilar membrane
  3. tectorial membrane

87

vestibular membrane

  • where is it located?

  • between cochlear duct and scala vestibuli 

88

vestibular and basilar membranes of the cochlea are located between

cochlear duct and either the scale vestibuli or tympani

89

basilar membrane

  • where is it located?

between cochlear duct and scala typmani

 

90

tectorial membrane

  • covers what?

covers hair cells (= receptor cells)

91

receptors in inner ear

 =

_____ cells that ______ with ______

hair cells that synapse with neurons

92

hair cells that synapse with neurons 

  • send _____ to _____ via _____

  • send impulses to brain via cranial nerve VIII 

93

hairs 

=

_____ that _____ into _______

hairs = 

cilia that extend into endolymph

94

cilia that extend into endolymph

hairs

95

hairs = cilia that extend into endolymph

______ of cilia _____ in where? 

tips of cilia embedded in tectorial membrane (stability)

96

between cochlear duct and scala vestibuli

what membrane?

vestibular membrane

97

between cochlear duct and scala tympani

what membrane?

basilar membrane

98

covers receptor cells

tectorial membrane

99

send impulses to brain via cranial nerve VIII

hair cells that synapse with neurons

100

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