Topic 3 - Chemestry Follows Suit In Indentifying The Elements Flashcards Preview

History - Technology MIDTERM > Topic 3 - Chemestry Follows Suit In Indentifying The Elements > Flashcards

Flashcards in Topic 3 - Chemestry Follows Suit In Indentifying The Elements Deck (25)
Loading flashcards...
0

Who is Joseph Black

Scottish investigator
Concerned with bladder stones & cure
Success was due to the accuracy of his measurements

1

What are some Joseph Black investigations

Chalk + heat = quicklime
Chalk into quicklime, gas evolved, slaking of quicklime, water absorbed
Adding carbonate soda changed back to original state

2

Who found fixed air and what is it

Joseph black
Fixed air: carbon dioxide
It's the conversion of quicklime into ordinary chalk by exposure to air

3

Who was first in intensive & detailed study of chemical reaction

Joseph black

4

Who is Henry Cavendish

Exact experimenter like J. Black
1st paper to Royal Society called "on fictitious air"
Published "experiments on air"

5

Explain "on fictitious air"

Paper by cavendish
Implied gas produced artificially in lab is distinct from natural air
Found "inflammable air" (now known as hydrogen)

6

Explain "experiments on Air"

Published by henry cavendish
Only product of combusted "inflammable air" & dephlogisticated air is WATER
Water is a compound not an element
Ratio 422:208

7

What is dephlogisticated air

Oxygen

8

What is Inflammable air

Hydrogen

9

Who is Joseph Priestly

1. No academic training
2. Greatly improved techniques or studying gases by collecting them over mercury instead of water
3. Found green pants make respired air again repairable & gives off respirable gas
4. Bad theorist b/c of no theoretical background
5. Isolated oxygen

10

Who is Carl Wilhelm Scheele?

"Treatise on air and fire" (1777)
Proved air consisted of 2 diff gases (oxygen & nitrogen)
Isolated oxygen before Priestly but didn't document it
Chemical discoveries: oxygen, chlorine, silicon, glycerol

11

What did black, cavendish, priestly & schele assume?

1. Matter was completely conserved
Never came about or disappeared during their experiments
2. Weight was the measure of matter
3. Prolonged boiling turned water into earth

12

Who is Antoine Lavoisier?

1. French chemist
2. Showed boiling water w/ solids left behind ( nothing lost, noing gained)
3. Carbon dioxide & water are product of breathing
4. Credited for the word Oxygen
5. Disproved the phlogiston theory

13

What is the phlogiston theory?

When a substance burns, phlogiston (flame) is given off

14

What does the word phlogiston mean?

Greek word for "Flame"

15

Who made the phlogiston theory?

German chemist : Georg Stahl (1660-1732)

16

Who were critics to the phlogiston theory

Richard Watson (1737-1816)

17

Who supported the phlogiston theory?

Henry Cavendish & Joseph Priestly

18

What was believed to cure bladder stones?

Joseph Black
"If we could dissolved bladder stones, we can make ppl drink Caustic Alkals orally"

19

What we know as "gases" now used to be called ________ back In The day

Airs

20

Who discovered dephlogisticated air (oxygen)

Joseph Priestly

21

Who was accused of plagiarism many times?

Antoine Lavoisseur

22

Who renamed dephlogisticated air to oxygen?

Lavoisseur

23

Chemical + oxygen =

Chemical oxide

24

Who is Matthew Bolton

Business person to market Newcomen's invention