Flashcards in Topic 3- Human Resources Deck (75):
What is a chain of command?
A system by which instructions are passed from one person to another
What is a hierarchy?
A system in which members of an organisation or society are ranked according to status or authority
What is a wide span of control?
Being responsible for lots of people
What is a narrow span of control?
Being responsible for a small amount of people
What is a tall structure?
Organisations that have many levels of hierarchy
What is a flat structure?
Organisations that have few levels of hierarchy
What is delegation?
The handing of responsibility for a task to another person
What are three benefits of organisational structures?
- see promotional opportunities
- see who's responsible for each job
- see who's responsible for who
How would you make a more flat structure?
Remove levels of hierarchy
What does the shape of an organisational structure tell us?
How long message takes to come across
List three advantages of delegation
- efficient as it frees up time
- good for training others, experience
- motivate people with the responsibility
List three disadvantages of delegation
- Job may not be done to the standard you’d want
- demand more pay from stepping in
- people can take advantage of this
What are centralised businesses?
Where important decisions are made by senior managers at headquarters
List two advantages of centralised businesses
- Organised/ simple to manage
- experience people making decisions
List two disadvantages of centralised businesses
- Other locations may need different things/ managers know what’s best for department
- poor decision could impact entire business
What are decentralised businesses?
Where decision making power is delegated to managers in other locations.
List two advantages of decentralised businesses
- Decisions suited to each store
- increased involvement for managers ( more motivating )
List two disadvantages of decentralised businesses
- Less qualified/ experiences decision makers
- inconsistent decisions/ less controlled
What is recruitment?
The process of finding new staff for a company
List three reasons why a business recruits new staff
- maternity leave
- specialist skills
List the recruitment process
1) Identify the vacancy
2) Draw up a job description
3) Draw up a person specification
4) Advertise the vacancy
5) Short list applicants
7) Select a candidate
List three possible interview questions
Why do you want this job?
Where do you see yourself in 5 years?
What is the job description?
A job description is a written account if what the job involves.
What is involved in the job description? (List three things)
What is a person specification?
A description of the type of person required to do the job
What could a person specification include? (3 points)
- Qualifications/ training needed
- Experience needed
- Personality traits
What are the two ways of advertising a job?
Internal and external
What is advertising a job internally?
Advertising within the business, eg. Staff room/ email to employees
What is advertising a job externally?
Advertising out side the business, eg. Jobcentre, newspapers
What are 2 advantages of advertising a job internally?
- Know the staff
What are 2 disadvantages of advertising a job internally?
- Create a vacancy
- limited options/people
What are 2 advantages of advertising a job externally?
- No vacancy created
- More options, new ideas
What are 2 disadvantages of advertising a job externally?
- Demotivate others in workplace
- Cost and time
When applying what do you normally need to present?
- Personal statement
- Application form
List 3 reasons why it’s important to have training
- Increases confidence
- Experience the role before doing it
- Increases efficiency
What are the 3 type of training?
Induction, on-the-job, off-the-job
What is induction training?
In order to adjust to their new job and help them become familiar with their new work environment
List two advantages of induction training
- Makes the more independent
- Make them efficient
List two disadvantages of induction training
- Takes time
- No productivity during training
What is on-the-job training?
Training that takes place while employees are actually working. It means skills are gained while trainees are carrying out their jobs.
List 3 advantages of on-the-job training
- Immediate productivity
- Specific to job
- Quick learning
List 3 Disadvantages of on-the-job training
- Accidents can happen
- Bad habits being passed on
- Time impact on other staff
What is off-the-job training?
Training at a site away from the actual work environment. Thus is normal,y through lectures, simulation and case studies
List 3 advantages of off-the-job training
- Can learn from outside specialists
- Become more confident
- Gain a wide range of skills
List 3 Disadvantages of off-the-job training
- Lost working time
- New employees may still need some induction training
What is Motivation?
The will to work due to the enjoyment of work itself.
Why do people work? (3 points)
Why is it good for a business to have motivated employees? (3 points)
- Perform better
- Retain staff, less will save (save £ on recruitment)
- positive work ethic/good attitude
What are the two ways of motivation?
Financial or Non-financial
What are the 6 options for financial motivation?
Commission, share options, profit-sharing, promotion, wages, bonus
What are the 7 options for non-financial motivation?
Job rotation, job enrichment, job enlargement, empowerment, praise, working environment, fringe benefits
What is commission?
When you get a percentage of the profit from what you’ve sold, eg. If in BMW you could get 5% from each car you sell
What are share options?
Given by a company to an employee to buy a share at a discounted price or a stated fixed price, eg. Buy 500 shares in it due to your success which will lead to more money
What is profit-sharing?
Where people who work for a company receive a direct share of the profits
What is promotion?
The advancement of an employee’s rank or position in an organisational hierarchy system
What are wages?
Monetary compensation paid by an employer to an employee per time they work
What is a bonus?
Monetary payment made to an employee over and above their standard salary
What is job rotation?
Practise of moving employees between different tasks to promote experience and variety
What is job enrichment?
A management process that involves redesigning jobs so hat they are mire challenging to the employee
What is job enlargement?
An increase in work not necessarily mor challenging but it means that the employee won’t get bored.
What is empowerment?
The process of giving one power and status in a particular situation
What is a part time worker?
A person who works between 16 and 20 hours a week
What is curriculum vitae?
A brief history of the applicant’s career. It is general and not specific to any job
What is the employment law?
Rules that exist to govern the workplace
What is a interview?
A formal meeting in person, for the assessment of the qualifications of an applicant
What is an aptitude test?
A test to find out whether someone has a natural ability for a particular type of work
What is praise?
Express warm approval or admiration of one's achievements
What is working environment?
The location where a task is completed. By improving, it means staff will be more efficient and relaxed
What are fringe benefits?
An extra benefit supplementing an employee's money wage or salary, eg. a company car or private healthcare
Why do businesses have temporary workers?
Because it suits them
What are full time workers?
Workers that work approximately 40 hours a week.
What is a salary?
The yearly amount you get
What is a headhunter?
a person who identifies and approaches suitable candidates employed elsewhere to fill business positions.
What is piece rate pay method?
The piece rate pay method compensates employees a set amount for each unit of work completed