Topic 3.5: Genetic Modification and Biotechnology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 3.5: Genetic Modification and Biotechnology Deck (16):
1

Define gel electrophoresis

Gel electrophoresis is a laboratory technique used to separate and isolate proteins or DNA fragments based on mass / size

2

Define DNA profiling

DNA profiling is a technique by which individuals can be identified and compared via their respective DNA profiles

3

What is the first step of gene transfer?

Isolation of gene and vector (by PCR)

4

After Isolation of gene and vector (by PCR), what is the next step of gene transfer?

Digestion of gene and vector (by restriction endonuclease)

5

After Digestion of gene and vector (by restriction endonuclease), what is the next step of gene transfer?

Ligation of gene and vector (by DNA ligase)

6

After Ligation of gene and vector (by DNA ligase), what is the next step of last transfer?

Selection and expression of transgenic construct

7

Define clones

Clones are groups of genetically identical organisms or a group of cells derived from a single original parent cell

8

How are clones produced?

somatic cell nuclear transfer

9

What is the first step of somatic cell nuclear transfer?

Somatic cells are removed from the adult donor and cultured (these cells are diploid and contain the entire genome)

10

After Somatic cells are removed from the adult donor and cultured (these cells are diploid and contain the entire genome) what is the next step of somatic cell nuclear transfer?

An unfertilised egg is removed from a female adult and its haploid nucleus is removed to produce an enucleated egg cell

11

After An unfertilised egg is removed from a female adult and its haploid nucleus is removed to produce an enucleated egg cell what is the next step of somatic cell nuclear transfer?

The enucleated egg cell is fused with the nucleus from the adult donor to make a diploid egg cell (with the donor’s DNA)

12

After The enucleated egg cell is fused with the nucleus from the adult donor to make a diploid egg cell (with the donor’s DNA what is the next step of somatic cell nuclear transfer?

An electric current is then delivered to stimulate the egg to divide and develop into an embryo

13

After An electric current is then delivered to stimulate the egg to divide and develop into an embryo what is the last step of somatic cell nuclear transfer?

The embryo is then implanted into the uterus of a surrogate and will develop into a genetic clone of the adult donor

14

Define reproductive cloning

Reproductive cloning: If the embryo is implanted into the uterus of a surrogate, a new cloned organism will develop

15

Define therapeutic cloning

Therapeutic cloning: Embryonic cells can be induced to differentiate to create specific tissues or organs for transplantation

16

Define gene therapy

Gene therapy is the insertion of genes into an individual’s cells to treat hereditary diseases by replacing defective alleles

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