Flashcards in Topic 4: Britain's Position in the World (1951-1997) Deck (63):
In what ways did Britain handle the Korean War successfully? (4)
1. Proved the UN as a credible agency.
2. South Korea was defended.
3. Showed loyalty to the USA.
4. NATO established permanent military bureaucracy after the war.
In what ways did Britain fail to handle the Korean War successfully? (3)
1. Political/strategic control of war held mostly by the USA.
2. Influenced fateful decision to invade North Korea (September 1950).
3. Created economic difficulties for already struggling post-war Britain.
In what ways did Britain fail to handle the Suez Crisis successfully? (4)
1. Dishonest conspiracy with France and Israel.
2. Damaged relations with USA.
3. Use of force meant USA couldn't criticise actions of USSR against Hungarian Uprising.
4. Went against UN.
In what ways did Britain handle the Falklands War successfully? (4)
1. Showed Britain to still be a great power.
2. Support of USA.
3. Support of UN.
4. Thatcher kept nerve in face of losses.
How did the USA provide support for Britain in the Falklands conflict? (3)
2. Military intelligences.
3. Use of US base Ascension Island.
In what ways did Britain fail to handle the Falklands War successfully? (4)
1. Costly enterprise of little significance.
2. Issue of Falklands sovereignty remained.
3. Luck in military campaign.
4. Sinking of Argentinian warship 'General Belgrano'.
Why was the sinking of 'General Belgrano' so controversial?
The ship was outside of the exclusion zone and sailing away from the Falklands at the time. 360 men killed.
In what ways did Britain handle the invasion of Kuwait successfully? (3)
1. Kuwait was successfully liberated from Iraq/Hussein.
2. 'Safe haven' set up to protect Iraqi Kurds.
3. Strengthened British-US relations.
In what ways did Britain fail to handle the invasion of Kuwait successfully? (3)
1. Middle East viewed as Western imperialism.
2. Hussein remained a problem. Britain and US invaded again 2003.
3. Hussein took revenge on domestic enemies e.g. Iraqi Kurds.
What are the main arguments in favour of Britain's nuclear deterrent? (4)
1. Maintains Britain's great power status.
2. Makes Britain and the world safer.
3. Contributes to defence of Western Europe.
4. (Pre-NATO, 1949) Britain feared the USA may not protect Britain/Europe from Soviet Attack.
What are the main arguments against Britain's nuclear deterrent? (4)
1. High maintenance costs could be invested elsewhere.
2. Virtually irrelevant compared to arsenals of USA/Russia.
3. Contributed to immoral threat to millions of lives worldwide.
4. Dependent on American Polaris missiles to carry British warheads.
Describe attitudes in the 1950s and early 1960s towards the nuclear deterrent.
A time of high nuclear threat.
FOR: Needed to be strong to prevent Soviet aggression.
AGAINST: Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND) formed in 1958, annual protest marches.
1962: Agreement with USA to use Polaris - not really "independent".
Describe attitudes in the late 1960s and 1970s towards the nuclear deterrent.
A time of international nuclear treaties.
FOR: Britain was a world power with some influence over the treaties of 1963 and 1968.
AGAINST: Nuclear arsenals of USA and USSR continued to grow and dwarf Britain's.
Britain had no real influence on the SALT treaties of 1972 and 1979.
Describe attitudes in the 1980s towards the nuclear deterrent.
A time of high nuclear tension.
FOR: Thatcher advises Reagan not to reduce arsenal.
1979-1987: NATO missiles stationed at British airbases in response to Soviet threat.
AGAINST: Build up of missiles threatened war between USA and USSR.
Women camped outside airbase at Greenham Common in protest. Lasted 19 years.
Describe attitudes in the 1990s towards the nuclear deterrent.
A time of decreasing nuclear tension.
AGAINST: USSR collapsed in 1991.
Expensive renewal costs.
Russia and USA still far more powerful.
Describe the nature of Britain's relationship with Russia 1945-53.
Berlin Blockade (1948-1949) led to very poor relations.
Cold War tension replaced wartime alliance.
Fear of WW3.
Churchill criticised USSR as sinister and secretive behind the "iron curtain".
In what ways were Anglo-Russian relations positive, 1953-1960? (4)
1. Stalin's death in 1953 and replacement with Khrushchev advocating "peaceful coexistence".
2. 1955: British and Russian navies exchanged goodwill visits.
3. 1956: Khrushchev visits Britain.
4. 1959: Macmillan visits Moscow.
In what ways were Anglo-Russian relations negative, 1953-1960? (3)
1. Britain encouraged signs of demands within the Soviet Empire for independence e.g. Hungary.
2. Each accused the other of imperialism.
3. USSR budded for support of African/Asian nations emerging from colonial rule e.g. Nasser accepted Soviet aid.
In what ways were Anglo-Russian relations negative during the 1960s and 70s? (3)
1. Concerns over Soviet forces during 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis.
2. Use of espionage. 1971: Britain expelled 105 Soviet diplomats on suspicions of spying.
3. Each regarded the other as a threat.
In what ways were Anglo-Russian relations positive during the 1980s? (2)
1. Thatcher declared Gorbachev as someone whom she "could do business with".
2. Thatcher visited Moscow in 1984 to calm concerns over the USA.
In what ways were Anglo-Russian relations negative during the 1980s? (2)
1. Thatcher was strongly anti-communist. Called the "Iron Lady" by Soviet media.
2. Thatcher advised USA against destroying their nuclear arsenal.
In what ways were Anglo-Russian relations positive during the 1990s? (3)
1. Supported Yeltsin's reforms against extremists.
2. 1992: Both signed trade and military agreements.
3. Britain helped Russia join G8 group of leading industrial nations.
In what ways were Anglo-American relations positive during the Korean War? (2)
1. Britain fought alongside US and UN forces.
2. President Truman promised to consult Attlee before using nuclear weapons.
In what ways were Anglo-America relations negative during the Korean War? (2)
1. Limited scale of British troop action.
2. British troops subordinate to American decisions (e.g. General MacArthur).
How did the Suez Crisis damage Anglo-American relations?
President Eisenhower was furious that Britain had ignored his wishes, and swore down the phone at Eden. He refused to give Britain financial aid until troops were withdrawn. Britain had to use their veto at the UN against US proposal of trade sanctions against them.
What were relations like between Macmillan and JFK?
JFK saw Macmillan as a political father figure, and consulted him for advice when the Berlin Wall was built, 1961,and during the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962.
What was the impact of the Vietnam War upon Anglo-American relations?
President Johnson was irritated by Wilson's attempts to broker peace in the conflict and refusal to send troops to Vietnam.
In what ways were Anglo-American relations positive in the 1970s?
The special relationship was somewhat restored by the personal relationship between James Callaghan and Jimmy Carter.
In what ways were Anglo-American relations negative in the 1970s?
Edward Heath was strongly pro Europe and saw the future of Britain as being with Europe, and did not seek to maintain the special relationship.
In what ways were Anglo-American relations positive in the 1980s? (4)
1. Reagan and Thatcher shared a warm friendship.
2. Reagan and Thatcher opposed UN sanctions against white supremacist apartheid regime in South Africa.
3. USA assisted in Falklands victory.
4. Thatcher allows USA to use British based F111 aircraft to bomb Libya.
In what ways were Anglo-American relations negative in the 1980s? (3)
Thatcher and Reagan disagreed over three main areas of foreign policy:
1. Thatcher opposed Reagan reducing US nuclear arsenal.
2. Thatcher opposed US invasion of Grenada in 1983 to overthrow Communist regime.
3. Thatcher opposed the Strategic Defence Initiative, believing mutually assured destruction made the world a safer place.
In what ways were Anglo-American relations positive in the 1990s? (2)
1. Britain and the US closely co-operated against Iraq during the First Gulf War. Britain made the third largest contribution to the international task force.
2. Britain and other European NATO powers co-operated with USA in bombing Bosnian Serbs in the Balkans against their ethnic cleansing attacks.
How did Britain play an important role in the establishment of the UN, 1945? (2)
1. Britain became one of the five permanent members of the security council, meaning they had a veto power.
2. Strong involvement in drawing up the UN charter.
What were the five main principles of the UN charter?
1. Maintenance of international peace and security.
2. Prevention of aggression.
3. Addressing economic, social and cultural problems.
4. Peaceful settlement of international disputes.
5. Promotion of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all.
Why was UN backing an important factor for governments?
Global media coverage put pressure upon governments to comply with the UN charter in order to gain the support of other nations as well as domestic opinion.
What was Britain heavily criticised for by the UN?
The UN criticised Britain for retaining its colonial empire, viewing it as a violation of the UN's commitment to human rights and freedom for people of all races.
How did Britain tend to use its veto?
Britain used its veto power very sparingly, but almost always when policy left them open to charges of imperialism.
Name three times Britain used their veto in order to defend themselves against charges of imperialism.
1. Used with France over Suez.
2. 1963-1973: Used six times upon resolutions regarding Rhodesia.
3. 1986: Used against resolution criticising the bombing of Libya.
In what ways did Britain's actions in Suez NOT comply with the UN charter? (4)
1. UN expressed its disapproval.
2. Nasser's actions were not illegal.
3. Use of force.
4. Deceitful collaboration.
In what ways did Britain's actions in South Africa NOT comply with the UN charter? (3)
1. Appeared to be supporting white minority rule.
2. Thatcher did not impose economic sanctions upon the apartheid regime, selling arms to South Africa in the seventies and eighties.
3. Vetoed resolutions against white minority rule.
In what way did Britain's actions in South Africa comply with the UN charter?
Harold Wilson attempted to negotiate a peaceful settlement with Ian Smith (Rhodesia).
In what way did Britain's actions in Malaya NOT comply with the UN charter?
40,000 British/Commonwealth troops were sent to crush Communist insurrection.
In what way did Britain's actions in Malaya comply with the UN charter?
Independence was granted in 1957. The government was headed by moderate, conservative Malays.
In what way did Britain's actions in Korea NOT comply with the UN charter?
700 British were killed and 34,000 Americans.
In what way did Britain's actions in Korea comply with the UN charter?
Communist aggression was prevented and democracy defended.
In what way did Britain's actions in the Falklands comply with the UN charter?
Britain's actions were justified by gaining UN backing.
In what ways did Britain's actions in the Falklands NOT comply with the UN charter? (2)
1. Thatcher did not explore peaceful resolutions.
2. Sinking of 'General Belgrano' outside of exclusion zone.
In what ways did Britain's actions in Cyprus NOT comply with the UN charter? (2)
1. Tensions between Turkish and Greek groups continued after independence.
2. Britain sent 25,000 troops to combat the Greek terror campaign.
What was the Schumann Plan, 1950?
The Schumann Plan proposed greater integration of French and German heavy industry.
What were the attitudes of Britain and the USA towards the Schumann Plan and the EEC?
Britain and the USA encouraged these for the security of Europe.
What were the conferences leading up to the formation of the European Economic Community (EEC)?
The 1955 Messina Conference (attended by a British delegate) and 1957 Treaty of Rome.
What were the initial reasons for British opposition to Europe? (4)
1. Preservation of Commonwealth trade links.
2. Preservation of the 'special relationship' with the USA.
3. Opposition to heavy leadership role of Europe.
4. Assumption that Britain was still a great world power.
What was established in competition with the EEC?
The European Free Trade Association (EFTA), 1960. Created a free trade area, but members were free to negotiate with non-EFTA nations on an individual basis.
How successful was EFTA in comparison to the EEC?
EFTA was unable to match the level of economic growth achieved by the EEC.
Why did Britain change their minds in regards to EEC entry under Macmillan? (5)
1. Increasing efficiency through increased competition.
2. Boost production.
3. Stimulate economic growth.
4. USA wanted a strategic link to Europe during the Cold War.
5. Internal power had been shaken by Suez and decolonisation.
Why was it difficult for Britain to join the EEC in 1961? (3)
1. The EEC had already developed complex economic structures e.g. Common Agricultural Policy.
2. French president Charles de Gaulle highly suspicious of "les anglo-saxons". Avoided British/American influence.
3. Britain wanted to be granted some exceptions for Commonwealth trade partners.
When did Britain join the EEC?
1st January 1973 under Edward Heath.
What were the positive outcomes of Britain joining the EEC? (4)
1. Given development grants.
2. Increased foreign business.
3. Right to work in other EEC countries.
4. Access to European markets.
What were the negative outcomes of Britain joining the EEC? (3)
1. No longer able to buy cheap food from the Commonwealth.
2. Had to impose VAT upon goods.
3. Being classed as an "advanced industrial economy", Britain had to make large contributions to EEC budget.
Why did Britain grant independence to its colonies 1957-1964? (4)
1. Colonial nationalism.
2. Drain on the economy - owed India £1200mn by the end of WW2.
3. WW2 fought upon ideas of opposing dictatorship.
4. USA was opposed to the empire.
In what ways was decolonisation successful? (4)
1. Commonwealth was respected for cultural and economic exchange and promoting democracy.
2. South Africa rejoined Commonwealth under Mandela in 1994, proving it to be a viable institution.
3. Singapore Declaration (1971) condemned racial prejudice and promised commitment to peace, equality and individual rights.
4. South Africa, New Zealand, Australia and Canada restrained vital economic and strategic ties to Britain.
How many colonies were granted independence, 1957-1964?
12 out of 45.