Topic 4 - natural Selection & Genetic Modification Flashcards Preview

Edexcel GCSE Biology > Topic 4 - natural Selection & Genetic Modification > Flashcards

Flashcards in Topic 4 - natural Selection & Genetic Modification Deck (50):
1

What is this a definition of: ‘A group of organisms that can reproduce with one another, producing offspring that can also reproduce’?


species


2

What is the scientific name for the modern human species?

Homo sapiens

3

From what type of creatures are modern humans thought to have evolved?

apes

4

What are the remains of organisms that have been turned into rock called?

fossils

5

Sedimentary rock exists in layers, one on top of another. Which layers are the youngest?

uppermost

6

Which substances did early human-like animals make tools out of?

wood, stone

7

Why do we only find the stone tools now?

The wooden ones have rotted.

8

Which of these three species is most closely related to modern humans, and how can you tell: habilis, Australopithecus afarensis, Ardipithecus ramidus?

Homo habilis, because the first word of its scientific name is the same as that of modern humans.

9

On which continent are the oldest human-like fossils found?

Africa

10

What is this a definition of: ‘A gradual change in the characteristics of a species over time’?

evolution

11

Where does the evidence come from that humans evolved?

fossils, stone tools

12

Over how many years can scientists trace human evolution?

millions, 4–5 million years

13

Name one trend that has occurred in the bodies of human-like species as they have evolved over millions of years.

walking upright, feet with short toes, larger brains, flatter faces, taller skulls etc.

14

What are the differences in characteristics between two organisms called?

variation

15

One type of variation is ‘environmental variation’, in which the environment causes variation in characteristics. What is the other form of variation called?

inherited variation

16

Suggest one reason why polar bears are better adapted than black bears to living in the Arctic.

sensible suggestion, such as they are white and so can avoid being seen against the snow by their prey

17

What is the name of the scientist who is most well known for developing a theory about evolution?

Charles Darwin

18

Some scientists think that a species called Homo heidelbergensis evolved into both Homo neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens. What is a species that evolves into two species like this called?

common ancestor

19

What is the scientific name for modern humans?

Homo sapiens

20

What do we call the system of scientific naming for organisms?

binomial system

21

Suggest the environmental change that resulted in the evolution of African elephants’ large ears.

increase in temperature – ensure that students realise that the change did not cause the elephants to want to evolve

22

Suggest the environmental change that resulted in the evolution of woolly mammoths’ hairiness.


decrease in temperature



23

A certain population of animals evolved long legs over a long period of time. Is this more likely to be due to an increase or decrease in the number of predators?

increase

24

What process does Darwin’s theory use to explain how evolution occurs?

natural selection

25

The binomial name for the African bush elephant is Loxodonta africana. What genus does it belong to?

Loxodonta

26

Humpback whales and dolphins are thought to have evolved from an animal that lived about 40 million years ago. What is an animal that evolves into different species like this called?

common ancestor

27

What is the name of the other person who came up with the idea of evolution by natural selection at the same time as Darwin?

Alfred Russel Wallace

28

Suggest one way in which the limbs of gorillas, whales and bats are similar.

They all have five fingers; they all have a pentadactyl structure.

29

One branch of biology that has developed thanks to Darwin and Wallace’s theory is the study of genes. What is this branch of biology called?

genetics

30

Elephants belong to the animal kingdom. What other kingdoms are there?

plants, fungi, protists/protoctists, prokaryotes

31

State one way in which the cells of bacteria are different to those of animals, plants, fungi and protists.

They have no nucleus/mitochondria/organelles, they have plasmids, they do not have chromosomes [instead they have a loop of chromosomal DNA].

32

Cattle, wheat and mushrooms are all farmed. What kingdoms do they belong to?

cattle – animals, wheat –plants, mushrooms – fungi

33

The scientific name for cattle is Bos taurus. What genus do they belong to?

Bos

34

Wild yaks are Bos mutus. Describe some features of wild yaks.

e.g. hairy coat, horns, stand on four legs, long tail, long face – any sensible suggestions that show that yaks are similar to cattle

35

Bos mutus and Bos taurus share a common ancestor about 1 million years ago. What process caused them to evolve in different ways?


natural selection

36

What domain do Bos mutus and Bos taurus belong to?

Eukarya

37

Why are these two species in the Eukarya domain?

They have nuclei/mitochondria in their cells.

38

Name the other two domains.

Bacteria, Archaea

39

The three-domain system was developed because while Archaea looked like bacteria/prokaryotes they had other characteristics more like plants and animals. What were these other characteristics?

They have genes containing unused sections of DNA.

40

There are about 800 different types of farm cattle that all belong to the same species. What is the name for different types of the same species of animal?

breeds

41

What is the name for different types of the same species of plant?

varieties

42

What term describes humans choosing certain organisms because they have useful characteristics?

artificial selection

43

What is the name of the process in which new breeds and varieties of organisms are created using artificial selection?

selective breeding

44

Give an example of a species of animal that has been produced by selective breeding.

any sensible suggestion, e.g. dogs

45

What word describes all the DNA in an organism?

genome

46

What is the name of the process in which genes from one organism are transferred into the genome of another organism?

genetic engineering

47

What three-letter abbreviation is given to organisms that have been genetically engineered?

GMO

48

What word describes the amount of useful product that can be obtained from a farmed plant or animal?

yield

49

Suggest a characteristic that would be useful in a new variety of lettuce.

any sensible suggestion, eg. better taste, quicker growing, greater yield, disease resistance

50

Suggest a characteristic that would be useful in a new breed of sheep.

any sensible suggestion, e.g. leaner meat, quicker growing, greater yield, disease resistance, ability to withstand certain conditions, more wool