How are igneous rocks formed? Give an example.
Igneous rocks are formed when magma from the mantle cools and hardens, the rock forms crystals as it cools. They're usually hard, e.g. granite.
How are sedimentary rocks formed?
Layers of sediment are compacted together until they become solid rock.
What are the two main types of sedimentary rock in the UK?
Carboniferous limestone and chalk - formed from tiny shells and skeleton.
Clays and shales are made from mud and clay minerals.
What are metomorphic rocks? Give an example.
Metamorphic rocks are formed when other rocks are changed by heat and pressure. The new rocks become harder and more compact, e.g. shale becomes slate.
Describe one way a past tectonic process has shaped the UK's landscape.
Active volcanoes - 520 million years ago the UK used to be much closer to a plate boundary, volcanoes forced magma through the earth's crust which cooled to form igneous rocks, e.g. granite.
Give three characteristics of granite.
It forms upland areas.
It has lots of joints (cracks) unevenly spread.
Its impermeable - doesn't let water through, creating large areas of waterlogged land with low-growing vegetation.
Explain how the UK landscape has been formed by glacial periods.
During some glacial periods, parts of the UK were covered in a massive ice sheet, ice is very powerful and was able to erode the landscape, carving out large U-shaped valleys in upland areas.
Give three physical landscapes that alter the landscape.
Weathering - the breakdown of rock into smaller pieces.
Erosion - wears away the rock.
Slope processes - including mass movements such as rockfalls, slides, slumps, etc.
How does forestry alter the landscape?
Forestry - the management of areas of woodland, when forets have been planted for timber; they're often planted in staright lines looking very unatural. When areas are felled, the landscape is left bare.
How does settlement alter the landscape?
As settlement grew they further influenced the landcsape; land was concreted over for roads and buildings, some rivers were diverted and river channels were straightened or had embankments built to prevent flooding.