Flashcards in Topic 5- Health Disease And The Development of medicine Deck (39):
State the definition of health
A state of complete physical, social and mental well being.
What does physical social and mental well being include?
Free from disease
Eating and sleeping well
Limiting intake of harmful substances:alcohol, drugs
How your surrounding affect you
How well you get on with other people
How you feel about yourself
Improving one category could improve others
Why do poorer people tend to have worse health.
Can not afford a healthy, balanced diet, or access to the same medical care to those with money.
What is a disease?
A problem with a structure or process of the human body that is not the result of injury. (An illness that prevents the body from functioning normally.
What is the difference between a communicable and non-communicable disease?
A communicable disease is an infection transmitted by direct contact with an infected person (cough, sneeze)
A non-communicable disease is not passes from person to person, caused by a problem in the body such as a fault in genes or the way we live. - lifestyle.
What is the immune system?
All the organs in the body that protect gains diseases. It includes both physical & chemical barriers together with organs that help to kill pathogens.
Name two types of non communicable diseases?
Genetic disorders/disease: caused by faulty alleles of genes. Can be passes on to off spring but not to any other person.
Poor diet/malnutrition: malnutrition occurs when you get too much or too little of particular nutrients from food. The lack of a certain nutrient can cause a specific deficiency disease.
Causes of cardiovascular disease are:
- high blood pressure can put strain on blood vessels.
-blood clot occurs in a coronary artery a heart attack occurs.
-accumulation of bad cholesterol in the wall of arteries can cause the volume of arteries to decrease, which increases risk of having atherosclerosis.
-smoking increases blood pressure as the blood vessels narrow the chance of blood clots increase.
Are two causes of liver disease:
-related to consumption of alcohol. Ethanol is a drug because it changes the way in which our body functions. Ethanol is broken down by enzymes in the liver.
-over a long period of time the livers’ ability to breakdown toxins such as ethanol is reduced. The disease of known as cirrhosis.
What is cardiovascular disease?
A result of the circulatory system functioning poorly.
How does malnutrition affect our heart.
Malnutrition caused by a diet that is high in sugars can lead to obesity, where large amounts of fat are formed under the skin and around organs such as the heart.
What is the formulas to work out BMI?
Why is perhaps the hip to waist ratio a better way of measuring body fat than BMI?
BMI doesn’t distinguish between body fat and muscle nor does it explain the distribution of excess body fat.
The method also assumes that the mass of body tissue is in proportion to the height.
What is the waist to his ratio?
Abdominal fat seems to be closely linked with cardiovascular disease.
Divine in waist measurement by hip measurement will give you the waist-hip ratio. It’s a better way of measuring abdominal fat than BMI.
How does smoking link to disease?
Tobacco contains many harmful substances that can damage the lungs when breathed in. Some substances are absorbed form lungs into blood and are transported around the body. These substances increase blood pressure, narrow blood vessels & increase risk of blood clots. All these lead to cardiovascular disease.
Treatment for cardiovascular disease include...
Someone with high blood pressure may be advised to give up smoking, do more exercise and possible given medicines to reduce it.
A narrowed blood vessel can be widened by inserting a stent at the narrowest part to hold it up.
Blocked arteries can be by bypassed by inserting other blood vessels so that the heart tissue is supplied with oxygen and nutrients again.
Name some examples of cardiovascular disease:
Coronary heart disease
Peripheral arterial disease
What is a virus?
Viruses are not organisms. They do not have a cellular structure and cannot carry out all of the seven life processes. They multiply by infecting a cell and taking over the cells DNA - copying processes and make a new virus.
Can viruses infect bacteria.
Yes different viruses infect different organisms including bacteria. These viruses are called bacteriophage viruses.
Give two examples of viruses and how they affect their host.
Ebola- causes the breakdown of blood vessels and liver and kidney cells. This leads to internal bleeding and haemorrhagic fever.
HIV- destroys white blood cells in immune system. They then can acquire AIDS and their immune system cannot protect them from secondary infections.
How is Malaria spread?
Malaria protist is carried in blood by mosquitos that suck blood from an infected person. The mosquito then injects the protest directly into the blood of the next person.
What do all viruses have in common?
All viruses contain one or more strands of genetic material surrounded by a protein coat or capsid, with many additional layers surrounding it.
All viruses are unable to replicate on their own.
What do viruses do to replicate?
They cell copies the viral genetic material and makes new viral genetic material and proteins. These components assemble into a new virus, which the escapes the cell to infect another cell.
Some viruses however cause complete breakdown of the cell or lysis.
What is the difference between a lytic cycle and Lysogenic cycle?
Lysogenic cycle is when a virus infects a cell. Their genetic material inserts into a cells genetic material. Every time it divides the viruses genetic material is replicated with the cells material. At some point the viruses genetic material triggers the copying of itself and the making of viral protein and the virus returns back to its lytic pathways.
What are some of the physical defences of a plant?
-outer surfaces of leaves and stems are covered by a waxy layer called the cuticle. Ales it difficult for pathogens to get to cells beneath.
-cells walls are another barrier pathogens must penetrate to get inside cell.
Name some chemical defences of plants.
Physical barriers are not good against herbivores such as, including pests such as caterpillars and aphids. So plants use chemical defences such as:
Wild potatoes release substances into the air when attacked by aphids. This is like the substance they release when attacked by a predator. This causes them to fly away.
Fox gloves produce poisons all the time.
Give examples of human physical barriers and what they do:
Skin: covers outer layer of body and is a waterproof, elastic layer that is hard to penetrate.
Scab: when skin is penetrated the blood clots to form a scab to prevent pathogens from entering.
Mucus: prevents, catches and stops pathogens from entering the nose and mouth through the air.
Cilia: catches microbes and dirt that is swallowed.
Name some examples of chemical defences:
- lysozyme found in tears and saliva is an enzyme which kills bacteria.
-hydrochloric acid found in the stomach kills harmful microbes and other substances while digesting food.
What do lysozyme do?
They help protect thinnest surfaces of the body. They are enzymes that break down cell walls of some bacteria and react with other substances that kill pathogens or make them inactive.
What are ciliated cells?
Ciliates cells are specialised to move substances such as mucus across their surfaces. This helps to move dust and pathogens out the body or into the throat to be killed or into the stomach to be killed by hydrochloride acid.
What happens if pathogens get through both chemical and physical barriers?
The immune system then attack’s the pathogen to try to prevent them from causing harm.
Explain how the immune system reacts to pathogen:
(All cells and virus particles have molecules on their outer layer called antigens. The immune system uses antigens to identify if something no inside the body is a cell from body or from outside.
1- lymphocytes have other molecules on their surfaces called antibodies.
2- a lymphocyte with an antibody on its surface that matches the shape of an antigen on a pathogen will attach to the pathogen.
3-this stops it from working.
4-The lymphocyte is activated and divides rapidly to produce identical lymphocytes with antibody molecules into blood.
5-The pathogen and antibodies attach and the pathogen is destroyed.
6-some lymphocytes remain inactive in blood as memory lymphocytes in case the pathogen comes back.
What is immunisation and what does it do?
Immunity to a pathogen can be triggered artificially by using a vaccine. The vaccine contains dead or weakened (inactive) pathogens.
What are the two types of antibiotics and what is the difference between them?
Bacteriostatic: stop bacteria from growing by interfering with DNA replication, enzyme activity and translation (protein synthesis)
Bactericidal: kills bacterial by preventing them from building a cell wall.
Why do antibiotics not affect human cells and why do they not affect viruses?
Do not affect human cells and human cells do no have cell walls. Same applies for viruses as they have a different structure but they also hide in the infected hosts cells so to kill them you would need to kill the human cell.
Why do bacteria become resistant to some antibiotics?
-In a population of bacteria there are a variation of some more resistant ones and some less resistant ones.
-when antibiotics are prescribed they kill off less resistant ones quicker so the person feels better and stops taking them.
-however this gives the more resistant bacteria a chance to reproduce so the antibiotics no longer work as they are now all resistant to the antibiotic.
Uses of monoclonal antibodies:
-testing levels of hormones and other chemicals (antibodies made to match hormones)
-locating and identifying specific molecules in a cell/tissue by binding them with fluorescent dye.
-treating cancer by targeting specific cancer cells.
Stages of making monoclonal antibodies:
1- take and animal (mouse) and infect it with an antigen.
2- extract the B-lymphocyte that the mouse makes in reaction to the antigen.
3- fuse this lymphocyte with fast growing tumour cells to make a hybridoma.
4- The hybridoma then divides really quickly (due to it being made from a tumour cell)
5- this gives you a lot identical antibodies called monoclonal antibodies.