Topic 5 - Homeostasias And Response Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 5 - Homeostasias And Response Deck (109):
1

What is a stimulus?

Change in environment

2

What is negative feedback?

Do the opposite

3

What is positive feedback?

Do more (i.e womb open)

4

What is a CNS?

Central nervous system; co-ordinates a response

5

Where is the CNS?

Brain and spinal chord

6

What are effectors?

Muscles that respond

7

What is a synapse?

A gap between neurones that connects them by diffusing chemicals to set off a signal

8

What is the process of normal responses?

Stimulus
Receptor
Sensory neurone
Synapse
Relay neurone (CNS)
Synapse
Motor neurone
Effector

9

What does a reflex arc do?

It only goes to spinal chord before going to the effector. Is faster.

10

What is the brain made of?

Billions of interconnected neurones

11

What is the cerebral cortex and where is it?

Wrinkly: controls consciousness, intellect, memory, lang
Front of brain

12

What and where is the medulla?

Controls unconscious activity
Front opposite spinal chord lump

13

What and where is the cerebellum?

Muscle co-ordination
Above spinal chord at the bak and is in a special circle

14

How can we study the brain?

Where it gets damaged and what is affected
Stimulate with electricity
MRI scan when doing things

15

What does the optic nerve do?

Carry impulses from receptor to brain

16

What does the lens do?

Focus light on to retina

17

What happens when there is too much light?

Circular muscles in iris contract, Radial relax

18

What happens when there is too little light?

Radial muscles in iris contract, circular relax

19

What happens when focusing on far away objects?

Ciliary muscle contract, lens becomes fat and more refraction happens. Suspensory relax.

20

What happens when focusing on far away objects?

Suspensory ligaments contract, the lens becomes thin and refracts less, ciliary relax

21

What is hyperopia?

Unable to focus on near objects
Lens wrong shape/Eyeball too short
Images focus behind retina
Convex to fix
Long sighted

22

What is myopia?

Unable to focus on distant objects
Lens wrong shape/eyeball too long
Refract too much
Image focus in front of retina
Concave lens to fix
Short sighted

23

What is long sightedness?

Hyperopia

24

What is short sightedness?

Myopia

25

How can you treat vision defects?

Contact lenses
Laser eye surgery
Replacement lens surgery

26

What part of the brain keeps body temp constant?

Thermoregularity centre

27

What is vasoconstriction?

When skin capillaries close

28

What does working agnostically mean?

Both sides of the negative feedback work together to stay constant

29

What are hormones

Chemical molecules released directly to blood

30

What do hormones do?

Control things in organs that need constant adjusting

31

What is body temp?

37 degrees

32

Where are hormones produced?

Endocrine glands

33

What are the gland you need to know?

Pituitary gland
Thyroid
Adrenal gland
Pancreas
Ovaries
Testes

34

Tell me about pituitary gland

Master gland
Many hormones that regulate body temp
Hormones released act on other glands to make diff hormones

35

What does the Thyroid do

Produce thyroxine
Regulate metabolism rate, HR and temp

36

What does the Adrenal gland do

Produce adrenaline
Fight or flight

37

What does the Pancreas make

Insulin and glucagon
Blood glucose

38

What do Ovaries release

Oestrogen
Menstrual cycle

39

What do Testes control

Testosterone
Puberty
Sperm

40

What are insulin and glucagon?

Hormones

41

What can remove glucose from the blood?

Exercise
Metabolism of cells

42

What controls the blood glucose level?

Pancreas

43

What happens when there is too much blood sugar?

Insulin secreted from pancreas to blood
Blood goes to liver
Liver turns excess glucose into glycogen

44

What happens when there is too little blood sugar?

Glucagon from pancreas into blood
Blood goes to liver
Liver thens glycogen to glucose

45

What is type one diabetes?

Produce little/no insulin

46

What is type 2 diabetes?

Resistant to insulin

47

How can you manage type 1 diabetes?

Insulin therapy
Exercise
Limit carbohydrates

48

How can you treat type 2 diabetes?

Dieting
Exercise

49

Where is waste filtered out?

Kidneys

50

What's the name for filtering out useful products

Selective absorption

51

What gets filtered out of the kidneys?

Urea
Ions
Water

52

What is extracted from Urea?

Ammonia turns into urea via kidneys

53

What is extracted from ions?

Kidney absorbs what it needs and discards the rest

54

What is lost in sweat?

Unregulated amounts of water, Ions and urea

55

What is extracted from water?

Kidneys remove excess

56

What is the conc of water in urine controlled by?

Anti-diuretic hormone(ADH)

57

Where is ADH produced?

Pituitary

58

What monitors water content?

Brain

59

Is the balance of water negative or positive feedback?

Negative

60

What does puberty do?

Releases sex hormones that trigger secondary sexual characteristics

61

What's a secondary sexual characteristic?

Boobs or stubble

62

Day one of menstrual cycle

Uterus lining breaks for four days

63

Day 4-14 of menstrual cycle

Thick layer full of blood vessels builds on lining

64

Day 14 of menstrual cycle

Ovulation

65

Day 14-28 of menstrual cycle

Wall maintains

66

What is FSH

Follicle-Stimulating Hormones

67

Where is FSH produced

pituitary gland

68

What does FSH do?

causes egg to mature in follicle
Stimulates ovaries to make Oestrogen

69

What does Oestrogen do?

causes uterus to grow
Stimulates release of LH and inhibits FSH

70

Where is oestrogen made?

Ovaries

71

What does Progesterone do?

maintains lining is second half of cycle - if it falls the lining does too
Inhibits FSH and LH

72

What is LH?

Lutenising Hormone

73

Where is LH produced?

Pituitary gland

74

What does LH do?

stimulates egg release (day 14)

75

What happens during dialysis?

blood flows through a partially permeable membrane in dialysis fluid
Same conc as blood
Waste substances diffuse
3 times a week for 3-4 hours

76

What are methods of dealing with kidney failure?

Dialysis/kidney replacement

77

If you have lots of oestrogen what happens?

inhibits FSH and stops egg from maturing

78

how does progesterone stop pregnancy?

creates a thick mucus to stop sperm from reaching egg

79

What two hormones can be used to stop pregnancy?

Progesterone and Oestrogen

80

what is 'the pill' made from?

progesterone and oestrogen

81

how effective is 'the pill'

99%

82

What are the side effects of the pill?

nausea, headaches

83

what else can the pill be made from?

Progesterone only

84

what are the advantages of a progesterone only pill?

same effectiveness, less side effects

85

What is in the patch and how long does it last?

oestrogen and progesterone. Lasts 1 week

86

What's in an implant and how long does it last?

progesterone. Three years

87

What's in a pregnancy prevention injection? How long does it last?

progesterone. Lasts two weeks

88

What types of IUD can you get?

plastic and copper

89

What does a plastic IUD do?

has progesterone to create a thick mucus

90

What does a copper IUD do?

kills sperm

91

What is an IUD?

Intrauterine device: T shaped insert

92

What are barriers for pregnancy prevention?

condom, diaphragm (cup), spermicide

93

Completely stop pregnancy?

sterilisation, avoid fertile days, abstinence

94

What are the problems with giving out hormones to increase fertility?

Too many kids

95

Where are the adrenal glands?

above the kidneys

96

What does adrenaline do?

increases HR

97

Where is the thyroid gland?

neck

98

What stimulates the Thyroid gland?

thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

99

Where is Thyroid simulating hormone produced?

Pituitary

100

What is phototropism?

When something responds to light

101

What is geotropism?

when something responds to gravity

102

what is gravitropism?

geotropism

103

What do auxins do?

Stimulate growth in tips of shoots and in roots

104

What happens if there is light on one side of the shoot of a plant?

Auxins move to the dark side and stimulate growth so it bends towards the light

105

What happens when a root grows sideways?

Gravity pulls the auxins down and they inhibit growth

106

What are auxins?

hormones that simulate growth in plants

107

What else can we use auxins for?

Growing cells in tissue culture
Growing from cutting with rooting powder
Killing weeds with broad leaves

108

What can Gibberellin be used for?

grow larger fruit
control dormancy
induce flowering

109

What can Ethene be used for?

speed up ripening
delay ripening so hard and less damaged