Topic 5.1 Keywords Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 5.1 Keywords Deck (39):
1

audit trail

a record of activities that have taken place on a computer system. this record is generated automatically and will record what has happened and who or what made the change.

2

authentication

the process of proving to a computer system who you are (eg. username and password).

3

back-up

a copy of files in another location so that they are still available if the original copy is damaged or lost. backing up is the process of making a back-up copy.

4

bandwidth

the amount of data that can be carried on a network in a given period of time.

5

byte

the basic combination of bits used to represent an item of information. a byte consists of 8 bits.

6

checksum

an error detection technique. a mathematical formula is applied to the data and the resulting numerical value is transmitted with the data. the recipient computer applies the same formula to the received data and then compares the checksum sent with the data to the calculated checksum. if the checksums don't match, the data is likely to have been corrupted and the recipient computer requests the data again.

7

client-sever network

a network that has at least one server to provide services to the client computers.

8

cloud storage

secondary storage, often belonging to a third party, that is accessed via a network, usually the internet, and so is not in the same physical place as the machine's RAM/ROM. files stored "in the cloud" can be accessed from anywhere via an internet connection.

9

code vulnerability

a computer program (the code) that has been written in such a way that it creates a security issue that may be taken advantage of to gain access to the computer system or data within it.

10

communication media

the means by which data is transmitted between devices on a network. coaxial cable, fibre-optic cable and microwaves are all forms of communication media.

11

cyberattack

any kind of malicious attack on a network-connected device

12

denial of service (DoS)

an attack on a network that attempts to prevent legitimate users from accessing its services

13

eavesdrop

having unauthorised sight of data being sent from ione computer to another over a network

14

encryption

the process of encoding a message into a form that only the intended recipient can decode, or decrypt, and read. the message is encoded using an agreed method or algorithm. this is called the key. the encrypted message is called the cipher.

15

firewall

a utility that controls program access to the network both incoming and outgoing

16

hypertext markup language (HTML)

essentially a text document that contains any text to be displayed along with:
-details of how text should be formatted
-details of any hyperlinks and when they like to using a URL.
-details of any object such as pictures or videos that should be shown within the web page when it is displayed

17

identity theft

the stealing of another persons personal details such as their bank account number, sort code or passport number, for the purpose of making purchases and running up debts in their name

18

internet

a worldwide system of interconnected networks that enables information to be exchanged and shared

19

internet service provider (ISP)

an organisation that provides its customers with a connection to the internet.

20

local area network (LAN)

a network that covers a relatively small geographical area, often a single site

21

malware

short for "malicious software". it is used as a generic term for any kind of software that is designed to disrupt the use of a computer system

22

network

an arrangement of computers and other devices connect together to share resources and data.

23

netowork topology

describes how the devices on a network are connected together

24

network security

activities designed to protect network and its data form threats such as viruses, hacker attacks, denial of service attacks data interception and theft, and equipment failure.

25

packet

a small quantity of data being sent through a network. the packet is labelled with the sender address (source), the recipient (destination), how many packets are being transmitted and the position of this packet in the complete message

26

peer-to-peer network

a network that doesn't have any centralised servers. each computer in the network can act as client and server

27

phishing

attempting to get confidential information by sending a user a message that appears to come from a trustworthy person or organisation

28

physical securtiy

controlling access to critical parts of a network using physical methods (locked doors) rather than software

29

protocol

a set of rules that govern how communications on a network should be formatted and what data they should include

30

router

a piece of networking hardware used to forward packets of data from one network to another

31

shoulder surfing

gainng access to information by watching someone enter it into a computer system

32

social engineering

any kind of attack on a computer system or network that exploits how people behave andrespond to certain situations

33

spyware

software, possibly a virus, that is designed to be installed secretly on a computer and record private information as the user enters it

34

unpatched software

software that hasn't had the latest security updates applied to it, making it vulnerable to attack

35

web server

powerful computer systems that store web pages and any multimedia that the pages might contain

36

wide area network (WAN)

a network that covers a large geographical area. it connect together two or LANs and is usually under collective ownership. the largest wide area network is the internet.

37

wireless local area network

a local area network in which connected devices use high frequency radio waves to communicate

38

hacking

the act of gaining unauthorised access to a computer system and the data it contains

39

virus

software that is designed to make and distribute copies of itself, usually for malicious purpose