Topic 6 - America during the Second World War (1939-1945) Flashcards Preview

Paper 1D: America 1920-1973 CORE CONTENT > Topic 6 - America during the Second World War (1939-1945) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Topic 6 - America during the Second World War (1939-1945) Deck (21):

When was the Lend Lease programme introduced?

March 1941


How did the Lend Lease programme work?

The U.S. loaned war materials to its allies (e.g. Britain, France, the Soviet Union). Most war goods not destroyed would be returned after the war.


Give three examples of materials that the U.S. sent to its allies under Lend Lease.

Arms (weapons, vehicles etc.)


Altogether, what was the value of the war materials shipped to other countries under Lend Lease ($)?

$50.1 billion


How many new businesses started up during the war?

More than 500,000


How many Americans worked in factories during WWII?

14 million


By how much did General Motors increase its workforce by during the war?



How many workers moved from the rural south to work in factories in the north during the war?

4 million


What group did Roosevelt set up in January 1942 to boost wartime production?

The War Production Board


Who was asked to attend the War Production Board?

America's leading industrialists (major business owners).


What percentage of America’s industrial contracts went to the top 100 firms?



Give two examples of companies who prospered during the war.



What were Americans encouraged to invest their income in during the war?

War bonds


What happened when Americans bought war bonds?

After the war, the bonds would be paid back by the government with interest.


How much was spent by Americans to buy war bonds during the war ($)?

$129 billion


How did the Lend Lease programme help U.S. industry to grow?

The majority of contracts for equipment were with U.S. businesses → increased production → provided jobs → more spending.


Why did World War Two reduce unemployment in America?

1. Lend Lease → American businesses had to increase production to supply equipment to allies → more workers were needed e.g. in factories (→ more spending → increased production → more jobs → more spending etc).

2. America entered the war in December 1941 → needed weapons, equipment etc. for its own war effort → production had to increase → more workers were needed.

3. Increasing demand for workers → wages increased → more spending → businesses made greater profits, and new businesses were set up to meet demand → more jobs.


Why did leading industrialists support the Democrat government during the Second World War?

1. Large firms / businesses believed they would make a lot of money out of the war (by manufacturing war materials) → supported Roosevelt and co-operated with him.

2. War Production Board set up → Roosevelt asked leading industrialists for their advice on how to meet war production needs → Roosevelt won their support.


How did World War Two help existing American companies to grow?

1. Some existing companies (e.g. Coca-Cola) followed American troops around the world to provide them with their products → set up factories around the world → became popular around the world → increased production → increased profit (→ more jobs → more spending).

2. Some existing companies gained additional work (e.g. Wrigley’s packaged rations for U.S. forces) → gained greater popularity (e.g. Wrigley’s added their chewing gum to the rations) → increased production → increased profit (→ more jobs → more spending).


Why did World War Two help agriculture to grow in America?

USA exported food to help its allies → increased demand for U.S. farm produce → prices increased → U.S. farmers’ profits increased.


Why was the American government able to spend more money during the Second World War?

1. Leading industrialists supported the war → Roosevelt had enough support to raise taxes and spend government money.

2. Americans contributed $129 billion to the war effort by buying war bonds → gave the government money to spend on wartime production.