Topic 7.2: DNA Replication Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 7.2: DNA Replication Deck (9):
1

What does semi-conservative replication mean?

DNA replication is semi-conservative, meaning that a new strand is synthesised from an original template strand

2

State that DNA replication occurs in a 5' - 3' direction (3)

DNA replication is semi-conservative, meaning that a new strand is synthesised from an original template strand
DNA replication occurs in a 5' - 3' direction, in that new nucleotides are added to the C3 hydroxyl group such that the strand grows from the 3' end
This means that the DNA polymerase enzyme responsible for adding new nucleotides moves along the original template strand in a 3' - 5' direction

3

What is the role of helicase?

Helicase unwinds and separates the double stranded DNA by breaking the hydrogen bonds between base pairs
This occurs at specific regions (replication origins), creating a replication fork of two polynucleotide strands in antiparallel directions

4

What is the role of RNA primase?

RNA primase synthesises a short RNA primer on each template strand to provide an attachment and initiation point for DNA polymerase III

5

What is the role of DNA polymerase III?

DNA polymerase III adds deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) to the 3' end of the polynucleotide chain, synthesising in a 5' - 3' direction
The dNTPs pair up opposite their complementary base partner (adenine pairs with thymine ; guanine pairs with cytosine)
As the dNTPs join with the DNA chain, two phosphates are broken off, releasing the energy needed to form a phosphodiester bond
Synthesis is continuous on the strand moving towards the replication fork (leading strand)
Synthesis is discontinuous on the strand moving away from the replication fork (lagging strand) leading to the formation of Okazaki fragments

6

What is the role of DNA polymerase I?

DNA polymerase I removes the RNA primers and replaces them with DNA

7

What is the role of DNA ligase?

DNA ligase joins the Okazaki fragments together to create a continuous strand

8

Explain the process of DNA replication in prokaryotes, including the role of enzymes (helicase, DNA polymerase, RNA primase and DNA ligase), Okazaki fragments and deoxynucleoside triphosphates (6)

DNA replication is semi-conservative and occurs during the S phase of interphase
Helicase unwinds and separates the double stranded DNA by breaking the hydrogen bonds between base pairs
This occurs at specific regions (replication origins), creating a replication fork of two polynucleotide strands in antiparallel directions
RNA primase synthesises a short RNA primer on each template strand to provide an attachment and initiation point for DNA polymerase III
DNA polymerase III adds deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) to the 3' end of the polynucleotide chain, synthesising in a 5' - 3' direction
The dNTPs pair up opposite their complementary base partner (adenine pairs with thymine ; guanine pairs with cytosine)
As the dNTPs join with the DNA chain, two phosphates are broken off, releasing the energy needed to form a phosphodiester bond
Synthesis is continuous on the strand moving towards the replication fork (leading strand)
Synthesis is discontinuous on the strand moving away from the replication fork (lagging strand) leading to the formation of Okazaki fragments
DNA polymerase I removes the RNA primers and replaces them with DNA
DNA ligase joins the Okazaki fragments together to create a continuous strand

9

Why is DNA replication initiated at many points in eukaryotic chromosomes? (3)

Because eukaryotic genomes are (typically) much larger than prokaryotic genomes, DNA replication is initiated at many points simultaneously in order to limit the time required for DNA replication to occur
The specific sites at which DNA unwinding and initiation of replication occurs are called origins of replication and form replication bubbles
As replication bubbles expand in both directions, they eventually fuse together, two generate two separate semi-conservative double strands of DNA

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