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Flashcards in Topic 8 Deck (36):
1

Chemical reactions

All chemical reactions in your body produce waste and must be excreted

2

What do kidneys excrete

Urea

3

What do your lungs excrete

Carbon dioxide

4

To ensure diffusion happened quickly:

The surfaces they move through are thin- so they don’t diffuse very far
Have a large surface area- so that there is more room for particular to diffuse

5

Capillaries

Use blood to transport substances to and from cells

6

Alveoli

In the lungs to increase surface are and that increase the amount of gas exchange

7

Circulatory system

Blood flows away form the heart into arteries. These divide into narrow capillaries which form fine networks running through tissues. Blood returns to the heart in veins.
A wave of stretching then passes along the artery this is called a pulse
After stretching muscle and elastic fibres in the artery’s wall contract again. This makes the blood flow smoothly

8

Artery walls

Are thick to withstand sudden increase of pressure

9

Veins

Only need thin walls because the blood flows under low pressure.
Veins contain valves to prevent the blood going the wrong way.
Veins carry blood to the heart

10

Artery’s

Take blood away from the heart
Thick layer of elastIc and muscle fibres

11

Red blood cells

Have no nucleus to there is more room for haemogoblin
They have hollows on each side to increase the surface area for oxygen diffusion

12

Lymphocytes

White blood cell
Make antibodies they stick to the cells and destroy them

13

Phagocytes

White blood cell
Remove bacteria/ viruses/ germs they surround the cell and digest them

14

How many chambers does the heart have

Four.

15

Atriums

Blood from the body enters the right atrium through the vena cave
At the same time blood from the lungs enter the left atrium though the pulmonary vein

16

Chambers

When the top chamber are full muscles around them contract to push blood into the ventricles then the muscle in the ventricles wall contract, forcing blood out of the heart

17

Valves

Stop blood flowing the wrong way

18

Aota

Carries blood to rest of body

19

Superior vena cava

Bring blood from upper body

20

Pulmonary artery

To lungs

21

Pulmonary vein

From lungs
Carry’s deoxygenated blood

22

Inferior vena cave

Brings blood from the lower body

23

Tendons

Stop valves from turning inside out

24

Septum

Completely separates the two sides of the heart

25

Aerobic respiration

Glucose + oxygen > carbon dioxide + water

26

Anaerobic respiration

Glucose > lactic acid

27

Why does wee excrete waste

Might be poisonous

28

What are the smallest blood vessels called

Capillaries

29

Erythrocytes

Red blood cells that carry oxygen from the lungs to the body

30

What component of the blood carries urea

Plasma

31

What helps to push blood along the veins in the legs

Skeletal muscles

32

How does the muscles around the heart help it do it’s job

It contracts and relaxes to allow to pump blood

33

Left ventrical

Has a thicker wall as it pumps blood around the body

34

Why does the heart rate increase during exercise

Cells in tissues need more oxygen and glucose

35

Similarities between aerobic and anaerobic respiration

Both release energy
Requires a source of glucose
Are a series of chemical reactions
Are exothermic reactions
Happen all the time

36

Differences between aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration

Aerobic happens in the mitochondria and anaerobic respiration happens in cytoplasm
Aerobic happens when their is enough oxygen anaerobic their isn’t enough oxygen