Topic 8- Exchange and Transport in Animals Flashcards Preview

Edexcel GCSE Biology > Topic 8- Exchange and Transport in Animals > Flashcards

Flashcards in Topic 8- Exchange and Transport in Animals Deck (50):
1

What do we mean when we talk about the concentration of a substance?


the amount of the substance in a certain volume (usually of another substance)

2

By what process do particles move from a place of greater concentration to a place of lower concentration?

diffusion

3

In diffusion, do particles move up or down a concentration gradient?

down

4

For what process in the body do we need oxygen?

aerobic respiration

5

What gases are exchanged in the lungs?

oxygen and carbon dioxide

6

What molecule is used to carry oxygen in red blood cells?

haemoglobin

7

A cuboid has sides of 4 cm by 4 cm by 5 cm. What units would be used for its surface area?

cm2

8

A cuboid has sides of 4 cm by 4 cm by 5 cm. What units would be used for its volume?

cm3

9

A cell has a surface area of 24 cm2 and a volume of 8 cm3. What is the ratio of its surface area to its volume?

3 : 1, although note that surface area : volume (SA : V) ratios are given as a single figure, 31 3  in this case

10

How are the lungs adapted for efficient gas exchange?

large surface area/alveoli

11

In human lungs, what gas is transported into the blood using gas exchange?

oxygen

12

How are alveoli adapted to their function?

they have a large surface area, they have thin walls

13

For what process does the body need glucose?

respiration

14

By what transport method do carbon dioxide molecules move from the blood into the lungs?

diffusion

15

A cube has a volume of 1000 cm3 and surface area of 600 cm2. What is its surface area : volume ratio?

0.6, but accept 3 : 5

16

How is the SA : V ratio of larger cells different from the SA : V ratio of smaller cells?

larger cells have a smaller SA : V ratio

17

How is the concentration gradient of oxygen between the inside and the outside of a capillary maintained?

by the flow of blood

18

What is the unit g/cm3 a measure of?

concentration

19

In what other format can g/cm3 be written?

g cm–3

20

Which organ excretes carbon dioxide in humans?

lung(s)

21

In what pocket-shaped structures does carbon dioxide excretion occur?

alveoli

22

Why do alveoli have walls that are only one cell thick?

to increase the rate of diffusion

23

Which organ excretes urea in humans?

kidney(s)

24

What do you divide surface area by to calculate a surface area : volume (SA : V) ratio?

volume

25

Which have the bigger SA : V ratios, smaller cells or larger cells?

smaller

26

Does diffusion happen up or down a concentration gradient?

down

27

What are the smallest blood vessels in the body called?

capillaries

28

What is the name of the blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart?

arteries

29

What is the function of an erythrocyte?

to carry oxygen

30

What is the name of the ‘pockets’ in the lungs where gas exchange occurs?

alveoli

31

Which blood vessels take blood away from the heart?

arteries

32

Which blood vessels have thick, elastic walls?

arteries

33

Which blood vessels contain valves?

veins

34

Through which blood vessels does diffusion of substances into and out of tissues take place?

capillaries

35

Which blood cells are adapted to carry oxygen?

red blood cells, erythrocytes

36

Which blood cells engulf and digest foreign cells?

phagocytes

37

Which component of the blood carries urea?

plasma

38

What helps to push blood along veins in the legs?

skeletal muscles

39

How many chambers does a human heart have?

four

40

What happens when blood is prevented from reaching heart muscles?

heart attack

41

What are the lower chambers of the heart called?

ventricles

42

What stops blood flowing the wrong way in the heart?

valves

43

Which side of the heart has the thicker muscle walls?

left side

44

What parts of the body does the right side of the heart supply with blood?

lungs

45

Which blood vessel carries blood to the left atrium from the lungs?

pulmonary vein

46

Does the pulmonary artery carry deoxygenated or oxygenated blood?

deoxygenated

47

Why does heart rate increase during exercise?

cells in tissues need more oxygen/glucose

48

Jack’s stroke volume is 0.1 litres/beat and his heart rate is 50 beats per minute. What is his cardiac output?

0.1 × 50 = 5 litres/min

49

What element does aerobic respiration need that anaerobic respiration does not?

oxygen

50

What happens to energy in an exothermic reaction?

It is transferred to the surroundings.