Flashcards in Topic Eleven Deck (47):
What is very important for life to exist on Earth?
The distance from the moon and from the sun is very important for life to exist on Earth.
What is the sun?
The sun is a star of medium size. Without it, there would be no life on Earth.
Why does the sun look bigger and brighter than other stars?
It is much closer to the Earth than other stars.
What is the sun made up of?
The sun is a ball of burning gases, mainly Hydrogen and Helium gas. Hydrogen atoms react to form Helium gas.
What is a nuclear reaction?
A nuclear reaction is the reaction whereby Hydrogen becomes Helium. Heat and light energy are produced during this reaction.
What is the hottest part of the sun?
The core is the hottest part of the sun, where the nuclear reactions take place.
What are solar flares?
Solar flares are explosions of gas on the surface of the sun which send high-energy particles into space.
What are sunspots?
Sunspots are areas that appear dark and are slightly cooler than the rest of the surface of the sun. They are actually magnetic storms on the surface of the sun.
What are prominences?
Prominences are loops and arcs of gas suspended above the sun's surface.
What is the solar system?
The sun and the objects around it are known as the solar system.
What is found in the solar system?
Objects such as planets, dwarf planets, moons, asteroids, ice and dust can be found in the solar system.
What is at the centre of the solar system?
The sun is at the centre.
What classifies a planet?
Any object that:
Travels around the sun in an orbital path
Is almost spherical in shape
Is able to keep its orbital path clear of other objects
How many planets are in our solar system?
There are eight planets in our solar system.
What are the terrestrial planets?
The inner rocky planets are:
What are the outer gas giants?
The planets that are made out of liquid and gas are:
What is a dwarf planet?
A dwarf planet is a planet that cannot keep its orbital path clear of objects.
What dwarf planets are in our solar system?
Pluto, Ceres, Eris and Makemake are the dwarf planets in our solar system.
What is a moon?
A moon is an object that revolves around a planet. They reflect the light of the sun.
What are asteroids?
Asteroids are rocks made up of a similar material to that of planets and have iron cores.
Where are asteroids found?
They are found mainly in the asteroid belt, a stretch of asteroids between Mars and Jupiter.
What is a meteoroid?
A meteoroid is a solid object in space that is smaller than an asteroid.
What is a meteor?
A meteor is a meteoroid that enters Earth's atmosphere and begins to burn up.
What are meteorites?
Meteorites are meteors that crash on Earth.
What is a comet?
A comet is a body made of frozen gases and bits of rock.
Where do comets come from?
Comets come from beyond the solar system.
What are the parts of a comet?
A comet has a head, a coma and a tail.
What is the head of a comet?
The head of a comet contain lumps of rock that are bound together by ice.
What is the coma?
The coma is the 'halo of light' that appears around the head of a comet when the ice in the head begins to break up when it nears the sun.
What is the tail of a comet?
The tail of a comet is the trail of dust and ice behind a comet.
What does the solar system look like?
The solar system looks like a flat disc.
How are the planets held together in the solar system?
They are held together by gravity.
What is gravity and how does it work?
Gravity is the natural force of every object that attracts other objects towards it. The more mass an object has, the stronger its force of gravity.
Why do the planets revolve around the sun?
The sun is the largest body in the solar system. It has the most mass, and therefore the strongest gravitational pull.
What are saturn's rings made up of?
Ice and rocks
What is the Kuiper Belt?
The Kuiper Belt is a ring of icy and rocky objects outside the solar system.
What is the Oort Cloud?
The Oort Cloud is a cloud of lumps of dust and gases that exists beyond the Kuiper Belt. Scientists believe that comets come from here.
Where is the Earth in relation to the sun?
Earth is the third planet from the sun.
What affects the temperatures on Earth?
The distance from the sun and the planet's atmosphere.
What is the Earth's average temperature range?
-40° - 40°c
Why is the sun necessary for life on Earth?
Sunlight is needed for plants to photosynthesise
Plants are needed for humans and animals to survive (food and Oxygen)
Plants, over time, create fossil fuels, which run cars and create electricity
Sun heats up water
The water evaporates and forms rain
The warm air rises and cools, creating wind
How is Earth's temperature important for the water cycle?
Water can exist in all three of its phases in the temperatures on Earth, enabling the water cycle to continue.
What is the make up of Earth's air?
78% Nitrogen 21% Oxygen 0.03 % Carbon Dioxide 0.9% Argon
Why is Oxygen essential to life on Earth?
Oxygen enables the release of nutrients in food.
What provides the energy for life on Earth?
What are the planets in our solar system in order of closer to the sun?