Flashcards in Topics 18-20: Endocrine, Reproductive, and Nervous Systems Deck (32):
growth factors and prostaglandins are what kind of regulators?
cytokines are what kind of regulators?
modified tyrosine produced by thyroid gland, increases metabolic rate
controlled by hypothalamus
made up of 2 parts
hormones made in hypothalamus, secreted by this pituitary gland
Gland that makes ADH and oxytocin
Gland that makes its own hormones, many stimulate growth
Gland that makes ACTH, TSH, LH, FSH, etc.
stimulates production of corticosteroids in adrenal cortex
stimulates production of thyroxine in thyroid
testosterone production, ovulation, and corpus luteum formation
needed for spermatogenesis and development of ovarian follicles
What makes thyroxine and calcitonin?
2 essential hormones
PTH and aldosterone
What makes PTH?
Increases blood Ca++ level, reabsorb Ca++ in kidneys, absorb Ca++ from food in intestine
Part of adrenal glands for mineral and glucose balance
Adrenal cortex (outer)
Part of adrenal glands for "fight or flight"
Adrenal medulla (inner)
reabsorbs Na+ for normal blood volume
What's it called when an individual can change its sex (most common in fish)
period of sexually receptivity (these females have an estrous cycle)
Oogenesis cycle parts:
Follicular phase, ovulation, luteal phase
What part of the cycle has an increase in estradiol causeing an LH spike
after ovulation, empty Graafian follicle becomes corpus luteum, which makes estradiol/progesterone to inhibit production of FSH and LH
mimics LH, keeping corpus luteum alive and preventing menstruation
What does a sodium-potassium pump bring out and bring in?
Pumps out 3 Na+, pumps in 2 K+
What happens in an action potential:
1.) Na+ channels open, Na rushes inside
2.) Rapid change in membrane potential
3.) K+ channels open, K+ rushes inside
4.) Rapid repolarization
gaps every 1-2 mm, letting action potentials to travel faster along myelinated axons
nodes of Ranvier
integrates brain with spinal cord; controls breathing
medulla oblongata (brain stem)
involved in coordination and motion memory; associated with medulla oblongata
motor control, memory, emotion, higher functions (in cerebral cortex)