Flashcards in Total War, Totalitarianism, and the Arts (1900-1950) Deck (32):
a government in which one political group maintains complete control, particularly under a dictator
Explain the three main "causes" of this era
1) MANY lives lost
2) Disasters were man made with new technology (tanks, gas, atomic bomb etc.)
3) "Military might is the best safeguard of peace)
The three "causes" of this era were advanced by what two things
1) Forming alliances b/w countries
2) Forming alliances b/w groups of people within a country
What were the two sides of WWI?
Central Powers & Allied Powers
What countries were apart of the "Central Powers"?
Austria Hungary, Germany & Ottoman Empire
What countries were apart of the "Allied Powers"?
Serbia, Belgium, France, Great Britain, Russia and (in 1917) the US
What were the biggest effects WWI had on literature and the arts?
Art detailed harsh atrocities that occur in combat and effects on soldiers
Who was Wilfred Owen?
Owen was a British officer (Allied Powers) & Poet
He died young (25), just before the war ended.
What was Wilfred Owen's poetry about?
War = senseless, barbaric, and a waste of human life
NOT thinking of the honorable nature of fighting for one’s country or the valor (bravery/courage)
Instead, poetry focuses on the death and destruction
What was Wilfred Owen's most famous piece of poetry?
"Dulce et Decorum Est"
Describe Erich Maria Remarque & his book "All Quiet on the Western Front"
Remarque was a German soldier (Central Powers)
He was wounded in combat
Brought that perspective into his writing (1st person/present)
Another take on war that is negative and disturbing/anti-military
Describe Fernand Leger and his painting "Three Women"
French soldier (Allied Powers) for 4 years
His art was influenced by the war, but war was NOT the subject
Beauty in the everyday and the
Women are “pieced together” in
a mechanical way
Beauty of machinery is evidenced in
Explain Otto Dix and his 4 pieces (2 self portraits, Stormtroopers during a gas attack, Skull)
German soldier (Central Powers)
Influenced by religion and philosopher Nietzsche
He volunteered for military service / idealistic view initially
Became a pacifist when he saw atrocities of war and how war veterans were being treated
We can see this view of war as honorable and brave transitioning to war as degrading and full of death
Describe the 3 causes of the Russian Revolution (1917)
1) Post WWI / desperate situation because of the war, government corruption, and the farming economy
2) People were starving under the rule of the tsars/czars
3) Marxist/communist system introduced under Lenin (Bolshevik party—leaders of the revolutionary working class)
What was the idea behind the Russian Revolution?
To liberate the workers (proletariat) from upper class (bourgeois) suppression…through a classless society …everyone would contribute to the state and share profit equally…thus, no private ownership.
How did the revolutionaries plan to achieve their goal?
A totalitarian regime is what Lenin created with the Communist Party to make this idea happen.
Why was the Russian Revolution unsuccessful?
This idea didn’t work. There was still an upper class, inequitable distribution of wealth, and the rise of a cruel dictator. (Stalin followed Lenin and had his own agenda.)
Describe the focus of art using Socialist Realism
This art/lit glorified the principles of the state/communism.
What were some examples of Socialist Realism Art and Literature?
ART: A.I. Strakhov – Emancipated Women Build Socialism!
LIT: Maxim Gorky – a writer, novelist and playwright who promoted a sympathetic portrait of the proletariat.
Summarize the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920)
The Mexican Revolution was mainly about getting rid of a repressive dictator who was in power for a very long time, Porfirio Diaz.
This internal war included many changes in power / and involved 2 great civilian military leaders (Villa and Zapata).
Over a million people died.
Uprooted society for a long time
The art represented this event.
What was the focus of Mexican Muralists?
These artists wanted to glorify Mexican culture by honoring:
the indigenous peasant people
the heroes of the Revolution
their Mayan and Aztec
Who were 3 influential Mexican Muralists?
Diego Rivera—The Course of Mexican History
David Alfaro Siqueiros—From the Dictatorship of Porfirio Diaz to the Revolution—The Revolutionaries
Jose Clemente Orozco—Portrait of Miquel Hidalgo
What were the two major alliances of WWII?
Axis and Allied Powers
What countries were apart of the Axis Powers?
Germany, Italy, Bulgaria, and Hungary
What countries were apart of the Allied Powers?
France, Britain, Russia, and in 1941 (attack at Pearl Harbor) the U.S.
How did art represent WWII?
the lit and the art do not describe war in glowing terms
detail the harsh atrocities of war / its effects on soldiers and civilians
despair and senselessness
Heroes were robbed of reason and innocence.
Black (gallows) humor was used
Describe Randall Jarrell and his piece "The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner"
Jarrell was in the US ARMY CORPS and used that in his work
A poem about the comparison of life and death
What was Picasso's painting Guernica about?
Boming of a small spanish civilian town
Summarize Lee Miller's WWII Art
Lee Miller (first female wartime photojournalist)
Photos recorded what really happened
Lit also did (like Anne Frank (The Diary of Anne Frank) / Elie Wiesel’s (Night)
How was film used during WWII?
Propaganda or Escape
Describe Social Realism
Social Realism -- work presented socially significant events in an objective, realistic manner